In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology: Journal of the Tissue Culture Association
Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) from adult adipose tissue were cultured in MCDB 131 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Under these conditions, HMVEC from seven different donors had finite proliferative life spans ranging from 14.5 to 23.5 population doublings (PD), with a mean life span of 19 PD. Addition of 10% conditioned medium from activated human leukocyte cultures (BM Condimed) extended the life span of HMVEC to 31 to 41 PD, with a mean life span of 37 PD.
Neural progenitor cells (NPs) have shown several promising benefits for the treatment of neurological disorders. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural progenitor cells (hNPs) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we transplanted hNPs or growth factor (GF)-expressing hNPs into the central nervous system (CNS) of mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1(G93A)) transgenic mice.
Neutrophils are major cells participants in innate host responses. They are short-lived leukocytes, although microbial products activate intracellular signaling cascades that prolong their survival by inhibiting constitutive apoptosis. To gain insight into the phylogeny of this important cell type, we examined the ability of toll-like receptor agonists to extend the lifespan of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) acidophilic granulocytes, which are the functional equivalent of mammalian neutrophils.
The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a crucial intracellular regulator of the immune system. Recent studies have suggested that immunosuppression by TOR inhibition may be mediated by modulating differentiation of both effector and regulatory CD4 T cell subsets. However, it was paradoxically shown that inhibiting TOR signaling has immunostimulatory effects on the generation of long-lived memory CD8 T cells. Beneficial effects of TOR inhibition have also been observed with dendritic cells and hematopoietic stem cells.
With ageing, there is a loss of adult stem cell function. However, there is no direct evidence that this has a causal role in ageing-related decline. We tested this using muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells (MDSPCs) in a murine progeria model. Here we show that MDSPCs from old and progeroid mice are defective in proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Intraperitoneal administration of MDSPCs, isolated from young wild-type mice, to progeroid mice confer significant lifespan and healthspan extension.
During development and aging, vascular remodeling represents a critical adaptive response to modifications in oxygen supply to tissues. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) has a crucial role and is modulated by oxygen levels, with an age-dependent response in neonates, adult, and aged people. ROS are generated under hypoxic conditions and the accumulation of free radicals during life reduces the ability of tissues to their removal.
Development and morphogenesis may easily be thought of as programed, in the sense that they result from a sequence of cellular and molecular events designed by natural selection to produce a given adult phenotype. Aging, except in exceptional cases such as the rapid decay and death of Pacific salmon, is not design but decay. The decay of senescence is not due to natural selection's designing hand, but to its absence.
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology can be used to model human disorders, create cell-based models of human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, and in establishing therapeutic strategies. To detect subtle cellular abnormalities associated with common late-onset disease in iPSCs, valid control iPSCs derived from healthy donors free of serious late-onset diseases are necessary. Here, we report the generation of iPSCs from fibroblasts obtained immediately postmortem from centenarian donors (106- and 109-years-old) who were extremely healthy until an advanced age.
INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received much attention as a promising population of stem cells in regenerative endodontics. Securing a good blood supply during regeneration is a challenging task because of the constricted apical canal opening, which allows only a limited blood supply. The aim of this study was to investigate any potential synergistic effects of dental pulp stem cells and endothelial cells (ECs) on osteo-/odontogenic and angiogenic differentiation in vitro.
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are a population of developmentally early stem cells residing in adult tissues. These rare cells, which are slightly smaller than red blood cells, i) become mobilized during stress situations into peripheral blood, ii) are enriched in the Sca1+Lin-CD45- cell fraction in mice and the CD133+ Lin-CD45- cell fraction in humans, iii) express markers of pluripotent stem cells (e.g., Oct4, Nanog, and SSEA), and iv) display a distinct morphology characterized by a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and undifferentiated chromatin.