Helminth parasites survive through a combination of parasite longevity, repeated re-infection and selective immune suppression to prevent protective Th2 responses. To counteract helminth-induced immunosuppression, and to induce long-term immunological memory, understanding of the multiple regulatory pathways within the T cell compartment is needed. Extrinsic inhibition by regulatory T cells is a key element of Th2 suppression.
Self-renewal and multilineage differentiation of stem cells are keys to the lifelong homeostatic maintenance of tissues and organs. Hematopoietic aging, characterized by immunosenescence, proinflammation, and anemia, is attributed to age-associated changes in the number and function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their microenvironmental niche. Genetic variants and factors regulating stem cell aging are correlatively or causatively associated with overall organismal aging and longevity.
Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity.
Many lineage-specific genes are poised and silenced in stem cells. Upon differentiation, genes that are related to self-renewal and alternative lineages are stably silenced. CpG methylation at proximal promoters and PRC2-mediated H3K27me3 play a role in silencing genes temporarily or permanently, with or without coexistence of active epigenetic marks, respectively. Interestingly, DNA methylation on neuronal genes that is distal to transcription start site enable transcription activation owing to its ability to repel PRC2-mediated inhibition.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the TGF-beta superfamily and play an important role in development and in many cellular processes. We have found that BMP-2, BMP-6, and BMP-9 induce the most potent osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Expression profiling analysis has revealed that the Inhibitors of DNA binding/differentiation (Id)-1, Id-2, and Id-3 are among the most significantly up-regulated genes upon BMP-2, BMP-6, or BMP-9 stimulation. Here, we sought to determine the functional role of these Id proteins in BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation.