BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses. Randomised controlled trials (?
Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria: 1996)
DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are involved within the epigenetic control of DNA methylation processes. Recently, it has been shown that the genomic DNA methylation in patients with alcoholism is increased. In the present controlled study we observed a significant decrease of mRNA expression of DNMT-3a and DNMT-3b when comparing alcoholic patients (n = 59) with healthy controls (n = 66): DNMT-3a (t = -2.38, p = 0.019), DNMT-3b (t = -2.65, p = 0.008). No significant differences were seen for DNMT-1 and Mbd-2 (Methyl-CpG-Binding-Domain protein 2) expression.
A new series of 2,3-cyclopentano-3,4-dihydro-4-spirocyclopentano-1,5-benzodi azepine which are substituted in 5-position with beta-N-heterocycloethyl or gamma-N-heterocyclo-n-propyl groups have been synthesized and evaluated for their CNS depressant activity including anticonvulsant, analgesic and pentobarbital induced hypnosis. These compounds were also investigated for their ability to inhibit in vitro succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). In most of the compounds an appreciable CNS depressant activity has been found to be associated with the compounds possessing good SDH inhibitory activity.
Cesium chloride (CsCl) at several dose levels (1.25-20.0 mEq/kg IP) was administered acutely to albino mice whose behavior was compared with that in corresponding saline controls. Motor activity decreased and Straub tail occurred in a dose-related manner. Signs of autonomic disturbance, diarrhea, and salivation were seen with toxic doses. Subchronic administration of CsCl (5.0 mEq/kg/day IP for 7 days) exerted a phenothiazine-like effect in mice, reducing amphetamine-induced aggregation toxicity and enhancing pentobarbital-induced hypnosis.
Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology
The present study explores pharmacologically on the model spontaneously beating 3H-noradrenaline pretreated guinea-pig atrial preparation the mechanism(s) by which the representative central nervous system (CNS) stimulant drug 3-methyl-3-ethylglutarimide (bemegride, MEG) and its representative CNS depressant homologue 3-methyl-3-n-butylglutarimide (MBG) affect transmitter release and the force and rate of atrial contraction and contracture, as well as the relevance of these atrial mechanism(s) to those involved in the production of drug-evoked convulsions and hypnosis in the mammalian CNS.
Aqueous extract of the root of P. vulgare (PV) produced CNS depressant effect. It decreased the spontaneous motor activity, prolonged the pentobarbitone induced hypnosis, reduced body temperature and increased the reaction time to pain stimuli. PV also caused prevention against supramaximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. PV showed a positive inotropic and chronotropic effect on perfused frog heart and caused hypotension and tachycardia in anaesthetised dogs. The effects were blocked by propranolol.
A series of (+/-) 3-[(3-substituted-5-methyl-4-thiazolidinon-2- ylidene)hydrazono]-1H-2-indolinones (2a-h) and 3-[(2-thioxo-3-substituted-4,5-imidazolidinedion-1-yl)imino] -1H-2-indolinones (3a-g) were synthesized by the cyclization of 3-(4-substituted-thiosemicarbazono)-1H-2-indolinones (1a-h) with ethyl 2-bromopropionate in anydrous ethanolic medium and oxalyl chloride in anhydrous diethyl ether, respectively. The structures of 2 and 3 were confirmed by analytical and spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and EIMS).
Effect of acute multiple (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body wt, i.p.) doses of C. colebrookianum leaf extract on behaviour, convulsion, analgesia and sedative-hypnosis was studied in mice. A marginal reduction of awareness and motor activity was observed in low (20 mg) and moderate (40 mg) dose level of extract. However, 80 mg dose caused marked inhibition of awareness and motor activity. Grip strength and stereotypy was observed in all the dose levels.
Melatonin (10 and 20 mg/kg) potentiated pentobarbitone (45 mg/kg) induced hypnosis; it (50 and 100 mg/kg) decreased both total and ambulatory activity; produced (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) hypothermia and possessed (10-400 mg/kg) significant analgesic property both in tail-flick and acetic acid-induced writhing tests. Melatonin in low dose (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the forced-swimming induced immobility period per se and also reserpine induced immobility.
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the ethanol-oxidizing capacity of the brain, accumulation of acetaldehyde, and ethanol-induced hypnosis in animals in vivo. METHODS: Randomly outbred albino rats were treated with ethanol, and the duration of ethanol-induced loss of the righting response (sleep time) was measured. They were killed 2 weeks later (without further in vivo administration of ethanol), and brain homogenates were prepared to measure the accumulation of acetaldehyde from ethanol added in vitro.