ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ayurveda has its unique perceptions and resultant methodologies for defining and treating human diseases. Fumigation therapy is one of the several treatment methods described in Ayurveda whereby fumes produced from defined drug formulations are inhaled by patients. This therapeutic procedure offers promising research opportunities from phytochemical and ethnopharmacological viewpoints, however, it remains under-noticed.
Chronic and degenerative disorders are a major, and growing, human health burden, and current treatments are in many cases inadequate or very expensive. Epigenetic therapies are attractive options for treating such disorders because they manipulate the processes that maintain cells in an abnormal transcriptional state. The challenges lie in identifying the most appropriate diseases and the enzymes that should be targeted.
Recent evidence suggests that covalent modifications to the genomic platform in the brain, that is DNA and its surrounding histones, provide a stable potentially lifelong mechanism for remembrance. Consequently, the making and unmaking of memories is accessible through pharmacological manipulations of these modifications. This has implications for psychotherapy and long-term rehabilitation of CNS disorders. We hypothesize that by enhancing learning through pharmacologically manipulating 'epigenetic' parameters, the effects of psychotherapies and rehabilitation can be enhanced.
Nuclear transplantation, cell fusion, and induced pluripotent stem cell studies have revealed a surprising degree of plasticity in mature mammalian cell fates. Somatic cell reprogramming also has been achieved more recently by the directed conversion of nonneuronal somatic cells, such as skin fibroblasts, to neuronal phenotypes. This approach appears particularly applicable to the in vitro modeling of human neurologic disorders.
PURPOSE: This paper reviews studies investigating the effectiveness of treating adult neurogenic communication disorders with complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). CAM is gradually experiencing recognition as a viable treatment approach for a variety of disorders by practitioners and patients. Some patients are using CAM as an adjunct to traditional rehabilitation. Additionally, speech-language pathologists are increasingly using CAM in treating communication disorders.
Recent clinical studies have emphasized the up-regulation (sensitization) of cough in pathological conditions of the airways. However there are also many situations where voluntary and reflex cough can be down-regulated.
Hysteria conceptions, from ancient Egypt until the 19th century Parisian hospital based studies, are presented from gynaecological and demonological theories to neurological ones. The hysteria protean behavioral disorders based on nervous origin was proposed at the beginning, mainly in Great Britain, by the "enlightenment nerve doctors". The following personages are highlighted: Galen, William, Sydenham, Cullen, Briquet, and Charcot with his School.
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria has a mortality rate of 10 to 30 percent despite treatment with parenteral quinine, a situation that may worsen with the spread of quinine resistance. Artemether is a new antimalarial agent that clears parasites from the circulation more rapidly than quinine, but its effect on mortality is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, unblinded comparison of intramuscular artemether and intramuscular quinine in 576 Gambian children with cerebral malaria. The primary end points of the study were mortality and residual neurologic sequelae.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
The combination of artesunate and mefloquine is currently one of the most effective treatments against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. To improve patient compliance to such a combination, the two agents have been combined in a prepacked single blister. Patients were instructed to simultaneously co-administer the drugs once a day for three days. In the present randomized, double-blind, parallel group, comparative, single center study in Thailand, this concept was investigated in 204 adults and children with acute, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.