Anxiety disorders increase risk for the early development of several diseases of aging. Elevated inflammation, a common risk factor across diseases of aging, may play a key role in the relationship between anxiety and physical disease. However, the neurobiological mechanisms linking anxiety with elevated inflammation remain unclear. In this review, we present a neurobiological model of the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes inflammation.
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder has a high co-occurrence with substance use disorders, but the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been adequately explored. AIMS: To review the role of stress in the onset and recurrence of affective episodes and substance misuse. METHOD: We review the mechanisms involved in sensitisation (increased responsivity) to recurrence of stressors, mood episodes and cocaine use.