Central Nervous System Stimulants

Publication Title: 
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an important problem both for people with the disease and for society. There is no cure, and alleviation of symptoms forms the cornerstone of care. Excessive fatigue that severely limits activity is experienced by at least two-thirds of the estimated 60,000 people with MS in the UK. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify current treatments for fatigue in MS and their evidence-base.

Author(s): 
Brañas, P.
Jordan, R.
Fry-Smith, A.
Burls, A.
Hyde, C.
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent literature (1st January 2014-1st February 2015) on stimulant treatment programme evaluations, and highlight key areas for future programme development. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances have been made in addressing both sexual risks and stimulant use among gay and bisexual men in the United States, and in adapting evidence-based resource-intense interventions to real-world settings. Programme outcome measures increasingly include changes in substance use as well as health and wellbeing indicators and measures of risk.

Author(s): 
Ezard, Nadine
Hodge, Sianne
Dolan, Kate
Publication Title: 
Current Medical Research and Opinion

OBJECTIVE: This review addresses the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs), with an emphasis on factors that determine the potential for psychostimulant abuse. Strategies for identification and treatment of patients with ADHD who are at risk for, or have, co-morbid SUD are also addressed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The article was based on a qualitative review of current literature addressing co-morbid ADHD and SUD.

Author(s): 
Kollins, Scott H.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders in childhood. A wide variety of treatments have been used for the management of ADHD. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of pharmacological, psychological and complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review with network meta-analyses. Randomised controlled trials (?

Author(s): 
Catalá-López, Ferrán
Hutton, Brian
Núñez-Beltrán, Amparo
Page, Matthew J.
Ridao, Manuel
Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego
Catalá, Miguel A.
Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael
Moher, David
Publication Title: 
Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England)

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an important problem both for people with the disease and for society. There is no cure, and alleviation of symptoms forms the cornerstone of care. Excessive fatigue that severely limits activity is experienced by at least two-thirds of the estimated 60,000 people with MS in the UK. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify current treatments for fatigue in MS and their evidence-base.

Author(s): 
Brañas, P.
Jordan, R.
Fry-Smith, A.
Burls, A.
Hyde, C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessment and treatment in children and adolescents is complex. Key biological and psychosocial risk factors need to be identified and treated because of their potential mediating interaction that affect the onset, progression, and psychosocial and medication treatment response of core ADHD symptoms and common associated co-morbid conditions. Both psychosocial and medication treatments, alone and in combination, have been shown to reduce the core ADHD symptoms and those of its key co-morbid disorders.

Author(s): 
Vance, Alasdair
Winther, Jo
Rennie, Kelly
Publication Title: 
Cellular and molecular life sciences: CMLS

The dynorphin/?-opioid receptor system has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders. In the present review, we present evidence indicating a key role for this system in modulating neurotransmission in brain circuits that subserve mood, motivation, and cognitive function.

Author(s): 
Tejeda, H. A.
Shippenberg, T. S.
Henriksson, R.
Publication Title: 
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine

Chronic drug exposure alters gene expression in the brain and produces long-term changes in neural networks that underlie compulsive drug taking and seeking. Exactly how drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and subsequent gene expression are translated into persistent neuroadaptations remains unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that complex drug-induced neuroadaptations in the brain are mediated by highly synchronized and dynamic patterns of gene regulation.

Author(s): 
Schmidt, Heath D.
McGinty, Jacqueline F.
West, Anne E.
Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy

Seven structurally-related compounds consisting of three antidepressant drugs (imipramine, desmethylimipramine and amitriptyline), three tranquillizing agents (promazine, chlorpromazine and chlorprothixene) and a hybrid, desmethylpromazine, have been examined in a series of tests involving autonomic functions and antagonism of reserpine.

Author(s): 
Halliwell, G.
Quinton, R. M.
Williams, F. E.
Publication Title: 
Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology

The present study explores pharmacologically on the model spontaneously beating 3H-noradrenaline pretreated guinea-pig atrial preparation the mechanism(s) by which the representative central nervous system (CNS) stimulant drug 3-methyl-3-ethylglutarimide (bemegride, MEG) and its representative CNS depressant homologue 3-methyl-3-n-butylglutarimide (MBG) affect transmitter release and the force and rate of atrial contraction and contracture, as well as the relevance of these atrial mechanism(s) to those involved in the production of drug-evoked convulsions and hypnosis in the mammalian CNS.

Author(s): 
Arblaster, C. I.
Cameron, D. W.
Lavi, Y.
Laycock, G. M.
Shulman, A.

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