The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
In the last decade, functional brain imaging techniques ranging from fMRI to PET to EEG have added to understanding the mechanisms involved in cognitive, affective, and motoric processes. More recently, as demonstrated by papers in a variety of neuroscience journals, the hypnotic experience and its modulation of critical human processes such as pain have added hypnotic procedures to the experimental techniques available for the neuroscience community.
Research studies clearly indicate that age-related changes in cellular and tissue function are linked to decreases in the anabolic hormones, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Although there has been extensive research on the effects of these hormones on bone and muscle mass, their effect on cerebrovascular and brain ageing has received little attention.
Intermittent fasting (IF; reduced meal frequency) and caloric restriction (CR) extend lifespan and increase resistance to age-related diseases in rodents and monkeys and improve the health of overweight humans. Both IF and CR enhance cardiovascular and brain functions and improve several risk factors for coronary artery disease and stroke including a reduction in blood pressure and increased insulin sensitivity. Cardiovascular stress adaptation is improved and heart rate variability is increased in rodents maintained on an IF or a CR diet.
The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a 14-day healthy longevity lifestyle program on cognition and cerebral metabolism in people with mild age-related memory complaints.
Evidence is reviewed that one of the cognitive-affective parallel circuits in the brain, the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, is compromised at the level of anatomical, neuropathological and transmitter-related molecules in a subgroup of schizophrenic patients. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) comprises a key structure in this circuit.
Cooperation based on reciprocal altruism has evolved in only a small number of species, yet it constitutes the core behavioral principle of human social life. The iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game has been used to model this form of cooperation. We used fMRI to scan 36 women as they played an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game with another woman to investigate the neurobiological basis of cooperative social behavior.
Iatrogenic neurological deficit constitutes the greatest risk during therapeutic embolization in the vascular territories of the carotid and vertebral arteries. Constant monitoring of the patient's neurological status is therefore essential. The authors discuss the use of medical hypnosis to circumvent general anesthesia and to reduce chemical sedation to a minimum. Their experience with this technique is presented.
Sufentanil, a synthetic opioid that is 5-10 times as potent as fentanyl, has been suggested for use during neurosurgical procedures because it maintains cardiovascular stability and produces hypnosis without the use of additional anesthetic agents. Doses as low as 2.5 micrograms.kg-1 are reported to create deep levels of anesthesia as demonstrated by EEG changes to high-amplitude delta-waves. However, there are no reports concerning the effects of sufentanil on blood flow and metabolism in the human brain.
International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
Using 133Xe regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging, two male groups having high and low hypnotic susceptibility were compared in waking and after hypnotic induction, while at rest and while experiencing ischemic pain to both arms under two conditions: attend to pain and suggested analgesia. Differences between low and highly-hypnotizable persons were observed during all hypnosis conditions: only highly-hypnotizable persons showed a significant increase in overall CBF, suggesting that hypnosis requires cognitive effort.