Cesarean Section

Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Intracutaneous or subcutaneous injection of sterile water is rapidly gaining popularity as a method of pain relief in labour and it is therefore essential that it is properly evaluated. Adequate analgesia in labour is important to women worldwide. Sterile water injection is inexpensive, requires basic equipment, and appears to have few side effects. It is purported to work for labour pain.

Author(s): 
Derry, Sheena
Straube, Sebastian
Moore, R. Andrew
Hancock, Heather
Collins, Sally L.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: The pain that women experience during labour is affected by multiple physiological and psychosocial factors and its intensity can vary greatly.  Most women in labour require pain relief. Pain management strategies include non-pharmacological interventions (that aim to help women cope with pain in labour) and pharmacological interventions (that aim to relieve the pain of labour). OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions to manage pain in labour.

Author(s): 
Jones, Leanne
Othman, Mohammad
Dowswell, Therese
Alfirevic, Zarko
Gates, Simon
Newburn, Mary
Jordan, Susan
Lavender, Tina
Neilson, James P.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes at term is managed expectantly or by elective birth, but it is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of planned early birth versus expectant management for women with term prelabour rupture of membranes on fetal, infant and maternal wellbeing.

Author(s): 
Dare, M. R.
Middleton, P.
Crowther, C. A.
Flenady, V. J.
Varatharaju, B.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: The pain that women experience during labour is affected by multiple physiological and psychosocial factors and its intensity can vary greatly.  Most women in labour require pain relief. Pain management strategies include non-pharmacological interventions (that aim to help women cope with pain in labour) and pharmacological interventions (that aim to relieve the pain of labour). OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions to manage pain in labour.

Author(s): 
Jones, Leanne
Othman, Mohammad
Dowswell, Therese
Alfirevic, Zarko
Gates, Simon
Newburn, Mary
Jordan, Susan
Lavender, Tina
Neilson, James P.
Publication Title: 
Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The prevention and control of HCV infection is complex and challenging in terms of describing risk factors and modes of transmission. This meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the best available data on HCV risk factors worldwide and in Egypt. METHODS: Through exhaustive literature searches (1989-2013) of HCV risk factors, 357 original eligible articles were included in this study.

Author(s): 
El-Ghitany, Engy Mohamed
Abdel Wahab, Moataza M.
Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W.
Hassouna, Safaa
Farghaly, Azza G.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is managed expectantly or by planned early birth. It is not clear if waiting for birth to occur spontaneously is better than intervening, e.g. by inducing labour. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review is to assess the effects of planned early birth (immediate intervention or intervention within 24 hours) when compared with expectant management (no planned intervention within 24 hours) for women with term PROM on maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes.

Author(s): 
Middleton, Philippa
Shepherd, Emily
Flenady, Vicki
McBain, Rosemary D.
Crowther, Caroline A.
Publication Title: 
Sao Paulo Medical Journal = Revista Paulista De Medicina

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:: This systematic review compared reiki and prayer with drug use for relieving pain during hospitalization for cesarean, given that the popularity of integrative medicine and spiritual healing has been increasing. It had the aim of evaluating whether reiki or prayer is effective in relieving pain during cesarean section. DESIGN AND SETTING:: Systematic review with meta-analysis conducted at Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS:: The following databases were searched up to March 2016: MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS and CENTRAL.

Author(s): 
Ferraz, Guilherme Augusto Rago
Rodrigues, Meline Rosseto Kron
Lima, Silvana Andrea Molina
Lima, Marcelo Aparecido Ferraz
Maia, Gabriela Lopes
Pilan, Carlos Alberto
Omodei, Michelle Sako
Molina, Ana Cláudia
El Dib, Regina
Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha
Publication Title: 
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)

Intrauterine gene therapy (IUGT) potentially enables the treatment and possible cure of monogenic -diseases that cause severe fetal damage. The main benefits of this approach will be the ability to correct the disorder before the onset of irreversible pathology and inducing central immune tolerance to the vector and transgene if treatment is instituted in early gestation.

Author(s): 
Mattar, Citra N.
Biswas, Arijit
Choolani, Mahesh
Chan, Jerry K. Y.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the History of Medicine

By 1800, the Roman Catholic Church and organized medicine faced the dilemma of how to resolve cases of obstructed births. American physicians usually practiced destructive operations, like craniotomy, in an attempt to save the lives of mothers. The church allowed such operations after the death of the infant. A new technique of surgery, the cesarean operation, offered hope that both patients would survive childbirth.

Author(s): 
Ryan, Joseph G.
Publication Title: 
BMC pregnancy and childbirth

BACKGROUND: According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken.

Author(s): 
Henderson, Jane
Gao, Haiyan
Redshaw, Maggie

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