Character

Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Psychology

The scientific interest on mindfulness meditation (MM) has significantly increased in the last two decades probably because of the positive health effects that this practice exerts in a great variety of clinical and non-clinical conditions. Despite attention regulation, emotional regulation, and body awareness have been argued to be critical mechanisms through which MM improves well-being, much less is known on the effects of this practice on personality.

Author(s): 
Crescentini, Cristiano
Capurso, Viviana
Publication Title: 
Psychiatria Danubina

After 30 years of clinical work and research based on categorical criteria for personality disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - DSM IV TR) and (International Classification of Diseases - ICD 10th revision), a solid conceptual understanding and treatment of these disorders have not been established. For the field to move forward, it is imperative that future classifications introduce major revisions of the concept, diagnosis, and classification of personality disorders. This paper proposes one such revision.

Author(s): 
Svrakic, Dragan M.
Cloninger, Robert C.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatria Danubina

This review focuses first on conceptual chaos and different connotations in psychosomatic medicine, then on new perspectives on comorbidity and multimorbidity, especially from epigenetics perspective. Comorbidity is one of the greatest research and clinical challenges to contemporary psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine. Recently altered gene expression due to epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the development of multifarious mental disorders and somatic diseases.

Author(s): 
Jakovljevi?, Miro
Reiner, Zeljko
Milici?, Davor
Crncevi?, Zeljka
Publication Title: 
Applied Psychology. Health and Well-Being

This study aimed to examine the relations between character strengths and dispositional positive emotions (i.e. joy, contentment, pride, love, compassion, amusement, and awe). A sample of 574 German-speaking adults filled in the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scales (DPES; Shiota, Keltner, & John, 2006), and the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005). The factorial structure of the DPES was examined on item level. Joy and contentment could not be clearly separated; the items of the other five emotions loaded on separate factors.

Author(s): 
G¸sewell, Angelika
Ruch, Willibald
Publication Title: 
Assessment

This study is aimed at testing the measurement properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) for the assessment of dispositional optimism by employing item response theory (IRT) analyses. The LOT-R was administered to a large sample of 2,862 Italian adults. First, confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the theoretical conceptualization of the construct measured by the LOT-R as a single bipolar dimension. Subsequently, IRT analyses for polytomous, ordered response category data were applied to investigate the items' properties.

Author(s): 
Steca, Patrizia
Monzani, Dario
Greco, Andrea
Chiesi, Francesca
Primi, Caterina
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy

The symbiotic phase of development is crucially involved in determing the nature of psychopathology as well as promoting psychic processes that are involved in creative activity and intimate object relationships. In a well-established object relationship, the partners relate to each other in a symbiotic fashion. From the analysis of married persons (and some clinical material is presented in this paper), the author concludes that the fundamental character structure, psychopathological or otherwise, of each spouse is identical.

Author(s): 
Giovacchini, P. L.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Psychoanalysis

This paper explores the issue of how character is created and re-created in the context of relationships. This theme, salient in the recent film The Hours, has been particularly problematic for creative women, who are often caught in tensions between self-development and relationship. Two case examples are given, in counterpoint to the film and to illustrations from Woolf's life and work. Through these various lenses, we can consider the complex interplays between our conjectures as to the expected price of relationship, and the actual price exacted as our various dramas unfold.

Author(s): 
Charles, Marilyn
Publication Title: 
Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals

In the nursing literature, a number of qualities are associated with loving care. Reference is made to, among other things, humility, attentiveness, responsibility and duty, compassion, and tenderness. The author attempts to show that charm, in the Marcelian sense, also plays a central role. It is argued that the moral foundation of charm is a unity of agape and eros. An impartial giving of the self for others is clearly of fundamental importance in an ethic of care. Including charm in the discussion points to the fact that eros also plays a crucial role.

Author(s): 
Pembroke, Neil
Publication Title: 
Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

This study examined the long-term consequences of idealization in marriage, using both daily diary and questionnaire data collected from a sample of 168 newlywed couples who participated in a 4-wave, 13-year longitudinal study of marriage. Idealization was operationalized as the tendency for people to perceive their partner as more agreeable than would be expected based on their reports of their partner's agreeable and disagreeable behaviors. Spouses who idealized one another were more in love with each other as newlyweds.

Author(s): 
Miller, Paul J. E.
Niehuis, Sylvia
Huston, Ted L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Relationship-contingent self-esteem (RCSE) emerges from perspectives on authenticity, need fulfillment, and relationship functioning and is an unhealthy form of self-esteem that depends on one's relationship. Four studies provided evidence of convergent, discriminant, incremental, and predictive validity for RCSE. Study 1 tested associations between RCSE and several conceptually related and unrelated constructs in multiple samples. In Study 2, the authors employed an event-contingent diary procedure to examine reports of self-esteem as a function of everyday relationship events.

Author(s): 
Knee, C. Raymond
Canevello, Amy
Bush, Amber L.
Cook, Astrid

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