Telomere shortening in normal human cells causes replicative senescence, a p53-dependent growth arrest state, which is thought to represent an innate defence against tumour progression. However, although it has been postulated that critical telomere loss generates a 'DNA damage' signal, the signalling pathway(s) that alerts cells to short dysfunctional telomeres remains only partially defined.
The DNA damage response (DDR) is critical for genome stability and the suppression of a wide variety of human malignancies, including neurodevelopmental disorders, immunodeficiency, and cancer. In addition, the efficacy of many chemotherapeutic strategies is dictated by the status of the DDR. Ubiquitin-specific protease 28 (USP28) was reported to govern the stability of multiple factors that are critical for diverse aspects of the DDR. Here, we examined the effects of USP28 depletion on the DDR in cells and in vivo.
BACKGROUND: The high risk of recurrence faced by patients with bladder cancer has necessitated the administration of supplemental intravesical chemotherapy; however, such treatments often result in severe side effects. As a result, novel intravesical agents with enhanced efficacy and minimal toxicity are urgently required for the treatment of bladder cancer. METHODS: Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) is a traditional Chinese medicine shown to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma.