Chemistry Techniques, Analytical

Publication Title: 
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society

It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the aetiology of age related diseases. Over the last decades, strong efforts have been made to identify antioxidants in human foods and numerous promising compounds have been detected which are used for the production of supplements and functional foods. The present paper describes the advantages and limitations of methods which are currently used for the identification of antioxidants. Numerous in vitro methods are available which are easy to perform and largely used in screening trials.

Author(s): 
Hoelzl, C.
Bichler, J.
Ferk, F.
Simic, T.
Nersesyan, A.
Elbling, L.
Ehrlich, V.
Chakraborty, A.
Knasm¸ller, S.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines) in the Lao PDR (Laos). METHODS: In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling.

Author(s): 
Sengaloundeth, Sivong
Green, Michael D.
Fernández, Facundo M.
Manolin, Ot
Phommavong, Khamlieng
Insixiengmay, Vongsavanh
Hampton, Christina Y.
Nyadong, Leonard
Mildenhall, Dallas C.
Hostetler, Dana
Khounsaknalath, Lamphet
Vongsack, Latsamy
Phompida, Samlane
Vanisaveth, Viengxay
Syhakhang, Lamphone
Newton, Paul N.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: In Central and South America and Eastern and Southern Africa, Plasmodium vivax infections accounts for 71-81% and 5% of malaria cases, respectively. In these areas, chloroquine (CQ) remains the treatment of choice for P. vivax malaria. In addition, CQ has recently proven to be an effective HIV-1 therapeutic agent. There is a dire need to continue monitoring quality of CQ as there is a major influx of substandard and fake formulations into malaria-endemic countries.

Author(s): 
Khalil, Insaf F.
Alifrangis, Michael
Recke, Camilla
Hoegberg, Lotte C.
Ronn, Anita
Bygbjerg, Ib C.
Koch, Claus
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health problem. A vital component of malaria control rests on the availability of good quality artemisinin-derivative based combination therapy (ACT) at the correct dose. However, there are increasing reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. METHODS: Seven collections of artemisinin derivative monotherapies, ACT and halofantrine anti-malarials of suspicious quality were collected in 2002/10 in eleven African countries and in Asia en route to Africa.

Author(s): 
Newton, Paul N.
Green, Michael D.
Mildenhall, Dallas C.
Plançon, Aline
Nettey, Henry
Nyadong, Leonard
Hostetler, Dana M.
Swamidoss, Isabel
Harris, Glenn A.
Powell, Kristen
Timmermans, Ans E.
Amin, Abdinasir A.
Opuni, Stephen K.
Barbereau, Serge
Faurant, Claude
Soong, Ray C. W.
Faure, Kevin
Thevanayagam, Jonarthan
Fernandes, Peter
Kaur, Harparkash
Angus, Brian
Stepniewska, Kasia
Guerin, Philippe J.
Fernández, Facundo M.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Quality control of drugs in formulations is still a major challenge in developing countries. For the quality control of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets in fixed-dose combination, only liquid chromatographic methods have been proposed in the literature. There are no capillary electrophoretic methods reported for the determination of these active substances, although this technique presents several advantages over liquid chromatography (long lifetime, low price of the capillary, low volumes of electrolyte consumption) in addition to simplicity.

Author(s): 
Amin, N'Cho Christophe
Blanchin, Marie-Dominique
Aké, Michèle
Montels, Jérôme
Fabre, Huguette
Publication Title: 
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The artemisinin-based antimalarial medicines are first line medicines in the treatment of severe and uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Numerous brands of these medicines manufactured in various countries are available in the Ghanaian market. The study was aimed at evaluating the authenticity and quality of selected brands of artemisinin-based antimalarial medicines marketed in Ghana. METHODS: In all, 14 artemisinin-based antimalarial medicines were purchased from pharmacies (P) and licensed chemical shops (LCSs) in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana.

Author(s): 
El-Duah, M.
Ofori-Kwakye, K.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The ineffectiveness of artesunate and amodiaquine tablets in malaria treatment remains a health burden to WHO and governments of malaria-endemic countries, including Ghana. The proliferation of illegitimate anti-malarial drugs and its use by patients is of primary concern to international and local drug regulatory agencies because such drugs are known to contribute to the development of the malaria-resistant parasites in humans. No data exist on quality of these drugs in the fishing village communities in Ghana although the villagers are likely users of such drugs.

Author(s): 
Affum, Andrews O.
Lowor, Samuel
Osae, Shiloh D.
Dickson, Adomako
Gyan, Benjamin A.
Tulasi, Delali
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) plays an indispensable role in malaria control and elimination. However, the circulation of counterfeit, substandard drugs has greatly threatened malaria elimination campaigns. Most methods for the analysis of artemisinin and its derivatives require expensive equipment and sophisticated instrumentation. A convenient, easy-to-use diagnostic device for rapid evaluation of the quality of artemisinin drugs at the point-of-care is still lacking.

Author(s): 
He, Lishan
Nan, Tiegui
Cui, Yongliang
Guo, Suqin
Zhang, Wei
Zhang, Rui
Tan, Guiyu
Wang, Baomin
Cui, Liwang
Publication Title: 
Analytical Sciences: The International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

A wax-impregnated carbon paste electrode with mercury oxalate as the bulk modifier is found to be suitable for the determination of heavy metal ions by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The contents of binder and modifier have been optimized, until they showed low background current and easy renewability. The bulk-modified electrode is applied for the simultaneous determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in medicinal plants and Ayurvedic tablets (Liv 52). The results obtained have been validated with HMDE and AAS and are found to be comparable.

Author(s): 
Mascarenhas, Ronald J.
Satpati, Ashis K.
Yellappa, Shivaraj
Sherigara, Bailure S.
Bopiah, Ajjikuttira K.
Publication Title: 
Analytical Sciences: The International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry

A wax-impregnated carbon paste electrode with mercury oxalate as the bulk modifier is found to be suitable for the determination of heavy metal ions by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. The contents of binder and modifier have been optimized, until they showed low background current and easy renewability. The bulk-modified electrode is applied for the simultaneous determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in medicinal plants and Ayurvedic tablets (Liv 52). The results obtained have been validated with HMDE and AAS and are found to be comparable.

Author(s): 
Mascarenhas, Ronald J.
Satpati, Ashis K.
Yellappa, Shivaraj
Sherigara, Bailure S.
Bopiah, Ajjikuttira K.

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