BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our previous study showed that SM905, a novel artemisinin derivative, exhibited potent immunosuppressive activity. In this study, we evaluate preventive and therapeutic effect of SM905 on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice, and investigate its mechanisms both in inflammatory and autoimmune aspects of the disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: CIA was induced by type II bovine collagen (CII) in DBA/1 mice.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the stress-responsive gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The present study examined the significance of HO-1 in response to LPS. In HO-1(-/-) mice, as compared with HO-1(+/+) mice, LPS provoked a greater reduction in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow, increased renal cytokine expression, and increased activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB. Conversely, HO-1-overexpressing renal epithelial cells, exposed to LPS, exhibited a blunted activation of NF-kappaB and less phosphorylation of its inhibitor, IkappaB.
Immune-mediated liver diseases including autoimmune and viral hepatitis are a major health problem worldwide. Natural cannabinoids such as Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) effectively modulate immune cell function, and they have shown therapeutic potential in treating inflammatory diseases. We investigated the effects of THC in a murine model of concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis. Intraperitoneal administration of THC after ConA challenge inhibited hepatitis as shown by significant decrease in liver enzymes and reduced liver tissue injury.
This study determined immune activities in the brain of ASD patients and matched normal subjects by examining cytokines in the brain tissue. Our results showed that proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6 and GM-CSF), Th1 cytokine (IFN-gamma) and chemokine (IL-8) were significantly increased in the brains of ASD patients compared with the controls. However the Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) showed no significant difference. The Th1/Th2 ratio was also significantly increased in ASD patients.
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the efficacy of green tea extract (GTE) in regulating chemokine production and chemokine receptor expression in human RA synovial fibroblasts and rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). METHODS: Fibroblasts isolated from human RA synovium were used in the study. Regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)/CCL5, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2, growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)alpha/CXCL1 and IL-8/CXCL8 production was measured by ELISA.
Cannabinoids are a group of compounds that mediate their effects through cannabinoid receptors. The discovery of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as the major psychoactive principle in marijuana, as well as the identification of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, has led to a significant growth in research aimed at understanding the physiological functions of cannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptors include CB1, which is predominantly expressed in the brain, and CB2, which is primarily found on the cells of the immune system.
Successful immunity to Leishmania depends on recruitment of appropriate immune effector cells to the site of infection and chemokines play a crucial role in the process. At the same time, Leishmania parasites possess the ability to modify the chemokine profiles of their host thereby facilitating establishment of progressive infection. Therapeutic and prophylactic strategies targeted at chemokines and their receptors provide a promising area for further research.
Bryostatin-1 (Bryo-1), a natural macrocyclic lactone, is clinically used as an anti-cancer agent. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that Bryo-1 acts as a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand. Interestingly, activation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (in vitro with Bryo-1) led to a TLR4-dependent biphasic activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the unique induction of cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10) and chemokines, including RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1-α).
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a proinflammatory state and confers an increased risk for vascular complications. Toll-like receptors (TLR) could participate in diabetic vasculopathies. Whether TLR activation contributes to the proinflammatory state of T1DM and the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We induced T1DM in TLR2 knockout mice (TLR2-/-) and wild-type littermates (C57BL/6J-WT) using streptozotocin (STZ).
It is reported that PTP1B limits cytokine signaling in vitro. However, PTP1B's function during inflammation in vivo is not known. In this report, we determined whether PTP1B deficiency affects allergic inflammation in vivo. Briefly, lungs of OVA-challenged PTP1B(-/-) mice had elevated numbers of eosinophils and eosinophil progenitors at 6 h after one OVA challenge and at 24 h after a third OVA challenge as compared with OVA-challenged wild-type mice.