Chemoprevention

Publication Title: 
Chest

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe empiric research related to lung cancer prevention strategies, including chemoprevention aimed at reducing lung cancer incidence and various smoking avoidance and cessation interventions aimed at reducing smoking rates. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Systematic searches of MEDLINE, HealthStar, and Cochrane Library databases to July 2001 and print bibliographies. For chemoprevention studies, we considered only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with lung cancer incidence as an end point.

Author(s): 
Kelley, Michael J.
McCrory, Douglas C.
Publication Title: 
Nature Clinical Practice. Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Gastroenterology lags behind other specialties such as cardiology in the quality of its evidence base for clinical practice. One area where this is particularly evident is in cancer prevention, despite developments in chemoprevention strategies for high-risk patients. For chemoprevention strategies to be successful, we need appropriate clinical networks and translational science infrastructures, model chemoprevention agents and multiple, large, flexible and randomized clinical trials.

Author(s): 
Jankowski, Janusz A.
Hawk, Ernest T.
Publication Title: 
Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural phytophenol. It is found in many plants, but the highest concentration was detected in different grape-derived products, especially in red wine. The substance is also an active ingredient of some over-the-counter diet supplements. High resveratrol popularity is a consequence of wide biological properties. Numbers of epidemiological and experimental studies have proved a complex chemiopreventive activity of resveratrol against various cardio-vascular disorders and cancer.

Author(s): 
Fraczek, Ma?gorzata
Szumi?o, Justyna
Podlodowska, Justyna
Burdan, Franciszek
Publication Title: 
The virtual mentor: VM
Author(s): 
Fahey, Jed W.
Kensler, Thomas W.
Publication Title: 
Canadian Family Physician Medecin De Famille Canadien

OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a family practice setting, women's views on incentives for and barriers to taking chemopreventive therapy for breast cancer. DESIGN: Descriptive, qualitative study using in-depth semistructured interviews. SETTING: Women's College Family Practice Health Centre, an academic centre in Toronto, Ont.

Author(s): 
Heisey, R.
Pimlott, N.
Clemons, M.
Cummings, S.
Drummond, N.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

We measured plasma tafenoquine concentrations in Thai soldiers given a monthly regimen of tafenoquine to determine whether these concentrations adequately suppressed malarial infections on the Thai-Cambodian border. After receiving a treatment course of artesunate and doxycycline, 104 male soldiers were administered a loading dose of tafenoquine (400 mg daily for 3 days), followed by tafenoquine monthly (400 mg every 4 weeks) for 5 months.

Author(s): 
Edstein, Michael D.
Kocisko, David A.
Walsh, Douglas S.
Eamsila, Chirapa
Charles, Bruce G.
Rieckmann, Karl H.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies are rapidly being adopted for the treatment of malaria in Africa; however, there are limited data on their safety and efficacy among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations. METHODS: We compared malaria treatment outcomes between cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Uganda who were observed for 18 and 29 months, respectively. Malaria was treated with artesunate plus amodiaquine, and outcomes were assessed using standardized guidelines.

Author(s): 
Gasasira, Anne F.
Kamya, Moses R.
Achan, Jane
Mebrahtu, Tsedal
Kalyango, Joan N.
Ruel, Theodore
Charlebois, Edwin
Staedke, Sarah G.
Kekitiinwa, Adeodata
Rosenthal, Philip J.
Havlir, Diane
Dorsey, Grant
Publication Title: 
Emerging Infectious Diseases

Plasmodium falciparum malaria developed in an African-born traveler who returned to Canada after visiting Nigeria. While there, she took artesunate prophylactically. Isolates had an elevated 50% inhibitory concentration to artemisinin, artesunate, and artemether, compared with that of other African isolates. Inappropriate use of artemisinin derivatives can reduce P. falciparum susceptibility.

Author(s): 
Shahinas, Dea
Lau, Rachel
Khairnar, Krishna
Hancock, David
Pillai, Dylan R.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment in children (IPTc) is a promising strategy to control malaria morbidity. A significant concern is whether IPTc increases children's susceptibility to subsequent malaria infection by altering their anti-Plasmodium acquired immunity. METHODS: To investigate this concern, IgG antibody (Ab) responses to Plasmodium falciparum schizont extract were measured in Senegalese children (6 months-5 years old) who had received three rounds of IPTc with artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (or placebo) at monthly intervals eight months earlier.

Author(s): 
Boulanger, Denis
Sarr, Jean Biram
Fillol, Florie
Sokhna, Cheikh
Cissé, Badara
Schacht, Anne-Marie
Trape, Jean-François
Riveau, Gilles
Simondon, François
Greenwood, Brian
Remoué, Franck
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: Presumptive treatment of malaria is common practice in malaria endemic resource-limited settings. With the changing epidemiology of malaria and the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), there is increasing need for parasite-based malaria case management to prevent unnecessary use of anti-malarial medicines, improve patient care in parasite-positive patients and identify parasite-negative patients in whom another diagnosis must be sought.

Author(s): 
Nakanjako, Damalie
Kiragga, Agnes N.
Castelnuovo, Barbara
Kyabayinze, Daniel J.
Kamya, Moses R.

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