American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Adiponectin, a physiologically active polypeptide secreted by adipocytes, shows insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties in rodents and humans. To assess the effects of chronic hyperadiponectinemia on metabolic phenotypes, we established three lines of transgenic mice expressing human adiponectin in the liver.
In a number of studies it has been shown that psychological factors in general and specifically emotional factors can be correlated to changes in immunological function and defence mechanisms. Although the mediating pathways between the central nervous system and the immune system still remain unclear, it is known that some of the 'classical stress hormones' such as cortisol and catecholamines have modulatory effects on different immunological parameters.
Chronic neutrophilic inflammation is a manifestation of a variety of lung diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF). There is increasing evidence that fragments of extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen and elastin, play an important role in inflammatory cell recruitment to the lung in animal models of airway inflammation. Unfortunately, the association of these peptides with human disease and the identification of therapeutic targets directed toward these inflammatory pathways have remained elusive.
Bromelain, a mixture of proteases derived from pineapple stem, has been reported to have therapeutic benefits in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including murine inflammatory bowel disease. The purpose of this work was to understand potential mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory activity. Exposure to bromelain in vitro has been shown to remove a number of cell surface molecules that are vital to leukocyte trafficking, including CD128a/CXCR1 and CD128b/CXCR2 that serve as receptors for the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 and its murine homologues.
Reports indicate contradictory outcomes for anti-inflammatory functions of the alpha-tocopherol isoform of vitamin E in clinical studies of asthma and atherosclerosis. These seemingly disparate clinical results are consistent with novel unrecognized properties of isoforms of vitamin E reported in this study. We demonstrate that the isoform d-gamma-tocopherol elevates inflammation in experimental asthma. Moreover, d-gamma-tocopherol, at as little as 10% the concentration of d-alpha-tocopherol, ablates the anti-inflammatory benefit of the d-alpha-tocopherol isoform.
Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) is a proinflammatory enzyme that generates the inflammatory mediator leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)). LTA(4)H also possesses aminopeptidase activity with unknown substrate and physiological importance; we identified the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP) as this physiological substrate. PGP is a biomarker for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is implicated in neutrophil persistence in the lung. In acute neutrophil-driven inflammation, PGP was degraded by LTA(4)H, which facilitated the resolution of inflammation.
It is reported that PTP1B limits cytokine signaling in vitro. However, PTP1B's function during inflammation in vivo is not known. In this report, we determined whether PTP1B deficiency affects allergic inflammation in vivo. Briefly, lungs of OVA-challenged PTP1B(-/-) mice had elevated numbers of eosinophils and eosinophil progenitors at 6 h after one OVA challenge and at 24 h after a third OVA challenge as compared with OVA-challenged wild-type mice.
AIMS: Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is a commonly used dietary supplement that exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the mechanisms by which LA may confer protection in models of established atherosclerosis. MAIN METHODS: Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits were fed with high cholesterol chow for 6 weeks and then randomized to receive either high cholesterol diet alone or combined with LA (20mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Vascular function was analyzed by myography.
Changes in chemokine receptor expression are important in determining T cell migration and the subsequent immune response. To better understand the contribution of the chemokine system in immune senescence we determined the effect of aging on CD4(+) T cell chemokine receptor function using microarray, RNase protection assays, Western blot, and in vitro chemokine transmigration assays. Freshly isolated CD4(+) cells from aged (20-22 mo) mice were found to express a higher level of CCR1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 and CXCR2-5, and a lower level of CCR7 and 9 than those from young (3-4 mo) animals.
BACKGROUND: Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. METHODS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cluster analyses of supercritical CO2 extracts of three Morus species were performed for chemotaxonomy-aided plant authentication.