BACKGROUND: This is the second update of the review first published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2009, Issue 1. Epithelial ovarian cancer is diagnosed in over 200,000 women worldwide each year. Ten to 20% of women are diagnosed early, when there is still a good possibility of cure. The treatment of early-stage (stage I and IIa) disease involves surgery to remove the disease, often followed by chemotherapy (adjuvant chemotherapy).
It is necessary to carry out randomised clinical cancer trials (RCTs) in order to evaluate new, potentially useful treatments for future cancer patients. Participation in clinical trials plays an important role in determining whether a new treatment is the best therapy or not. Therefore, it is important to understand on what basis patients decide to participate in clinical trials and to investigate the implications of this understanding for optimising the information process related to study participation.
Chronic pain in children and adolescents is frequently misdiagnosed by caregivers. It is not treated until it results in the loss of routine ability and function. Chronic pain is often associated with underlying diseases commonly seen in childhood, including sickle cell disease, malignancy, rheumatologic disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, trauma, and states where there is no identifiable etiology. Chronic pain differs from acute pain in that it serves no useful function.
Indukantha Ghritha (IG) is a polyherbal preparation consisting of 17 plant components widely prescribed by ayurvedic physicians for various ailments. Though it is a known ayurvedic drug, no attempt has been made to scientifically validate its mechanism of action. Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed IG to possess considerable immunomodulatory effects with a Th1 type of immune response. In this regard, we attempted to elucidate its role as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy.
Therapeutic gain by radiotherapy can be achieved through improved targeting, selectively sensitizing malignant cells, or protecting normal tissue. The majority of synthetic chemical radiation sensitizers and normal tissue protectors have proved to be too toxic at effective clinical doses. However, Asian botanicals (from both Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine) are being evaluated for their ability to improve therapeutic gain through the modulation of reactive oxygen species. An increase in the efficacy of radiotherapy on tumor tissue allows a reduction in the dose applied to normal tissues.
Data from multiple epidemiologic and clinical studies on immune effects of conventional cancer treatment and the clinical benefits of polysaccharide immune therapy suggest that immune function has a role in breast cancer prevention. Immune therapy utilizing the polysaccharide constituents of Trametes versicolor (Tv) as concurrent adjuvant cancer therapy may be warranted as part of a comprehensive cancer treatment and secondary prevention strategy.
Circulating levels of vitamin C (ascorbate) are low in patients with sepsis. Parenteral administration of ascorbate raises plasma and tissue concentrations of the vitamin and may decrease morbidity. In animal models of sepsis, intravenous ascorbate injection increases survival and protects several microvascular functions, namely, capillary blood flow, microvascular permeability barrier, and arteriolar responsiveness to vasoconstrictors and vasodilators. The effects of parenteral ascorbate on microvascular function are both rapid and persistent.
Hot flashes in breast cancer survivors (BCS) receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy are common, but risk factors for these symptoms are ill-defined. This study tested if body size is associated with hot flashes in BCS on AI therapy. A cross-sectional study of postmenopausal BCS receiving adjuvant AI therapy was performed. The primary outcome was occurrence of patient-reported hot flashes. The primary exposures of interest were current body size and weight change since breast cancer diagnosis.
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the numbers of new cancer cases are expected to continue to rise. The main goals of cancer therapy include removing the primary tumor, preventing the spread of distant metastases, and improving survival and quality of life for the patients. To attain these goals of cancer therapy, the combination of different chemotherapeutics, as opposed to the conventional single-agent treatment, is an emerging area of research.
Ultrasonography must be used in combination with physical examination for the appropriate diagnosis of acute tendon injuries. Therapy should be designed to return the tendon to its normal function and appearance. Local and systemic anti-inflammatory agents, cold hydrotherapy and massage minimize excessive scar formation and progressively increasing tensile forces directs scar tissue to replace the tendon function.