Child Development Disorders, Pervasive

Publication Title: 
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists

BACKGROUND: Currently, only one medication (risperidone) is FDA-approved for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Perhaps for this reason, the use of novel, unconventional, and off-label treatments for ASD is common, with up to 74% of children with ASD using these treatments; however, treating physicians are often unaware of this usage. METHODS: A systematic literature search of electronic scientific databases was performed to identify studies of novel and emerging treatments for ASD, including nutritional supplements, diets, medications, and nonbiological treatments.

Author(s): 
Rossignol, Daniel A.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists

BACKGROUND: Currently, only one medication (risperidone) is FDA-approved for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Perhaps for this reason, the use of novel, unconventional, and off-label treatments for ASD is common, with up to 74% of children with ASD using these treatments; however, treating physicians are often unaware of this usage. METHODS: A systematic literature search of electronic scientific databases was performed to identify studies of novel and emerging treatments for ASD, including nutritional supplements, diets, medications, and nonbiological treatments.

Author(s): 
Rossignol, Daniel A.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We searched the literature using 15 databases. Eleven randomized clinical trials (RCTs) met our inclusion criteria. Most had significant methodological weaknesses. The studies' statistical and clinical heterogeneity prevented us from conducting a meta-analysis. Two RCTs found that acupuncture plus conventional language therapy was superior to sham acupuncture plus conventional therapy.

Author(s): 
Lee, Myeong Soo
Choi, Tae-Young
Shin, Byung-Cheul
Ernst, Edzard
Publication Title: 
Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

Dysfunction of cerebral cortex in autism is thought to involve alterations in inhibitory neurotransmission. Here, we screened, in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 15 subjects diagnosed with autism and 15 matched controls the expression of 44 transcripts that are either preferentially expressed in gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons of the mature cortex or important for the development of inhibitory circuitry. Significant alterations in the autism cohort included decreased expression (-45%) of RPP25 (15q24.1), which is located within the autism susceptibility locus, 15q22-26.

Author(s): 
Huang, Hsien-Sung
Cheung, Iris
Akbarian, Schahram
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate neurodevelopmental processes. The objective of this review is to illustrate how epigenetic modifications that are known to alter gene expression without changing primary DNA sequence may play a role in the etiology of ASD.

Author(s): 
Grafodatskaya, Daria
Chung, Brian
Szatmari, Peter
Weksberg, Rosanna
Publication Title: 
Current Opinion in Psychiatry

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper outlines some of the key findings from genetic research carried out in the last 12-18 months, which indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder involving interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. RECENT FINDINGS: The current literature highlights the presence of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in ASD with a number of underlying pathogenetic mechanisms.

Author(s): 
Eapen, Valsamma
Publication Title: 
Brain & Development

SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses, and plays important roles in the formation, maturation, and maintenance of synapses. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene causes a developmental disorder, 22q13.3 deletion syndrome (known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome), that is characterized by severe expressive language and speech delay, hypotonia, global developmental delay, and autistic behavior.

Author(s): 
Uchino, Shigeo
Waga, Chikako
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) defines a group of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Although the aetiology of ASD has a strong genetic component, there is considerable monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance indicating a role for non-genetic factors. Because MZ twins share an identical DNA sequence, disease-discordant MZ twin pairs provide an ideal model for examining the contribution of environmentally driven epigenetic factors in disease.

Author(s): 
Wong, C. C. Y.
Meaburn, E. L.
Ronald, A.
Price, T. S.
Jeffries, A. R.
Schalkwyk, L. C.
Plomin, R.
Mill, J.
Publication Title: 
Translational Psychiatry

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms related to altered social interactions/communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors. In addition to genetic risk, epigenetic mechanisms (which include DNA methylation/demethylation) are thought to be important in the etiopathogenesis of ASD.

Author(s): 
Zhubi, A.
Chen, Y.
Dong, E.
Cook, E. H.
Guidotti, A.
Grayson, D. R.
Publication Title: 
Pediatrics

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to investigate the associations among maternal prepregnancy BMI, paternal BMI, and the risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children. METHODS: The study sample of 92?909 children was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The age range was 4.0 through 13.1 (mean 7.4) years. Relative risks of ASDs were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models.

Author(s): 
SurÈn, PÂl
Gunnes, Nina
Roth, Christine
Bresnahan, Michaeline
Hornig, Mady
Hirtz, Deborah
Lie, Kari Kveim
Lipkin, W. Ian
Magnus, Per
Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted
Schj¯lberg, Synnve
Susser, Ezra
Oyen, Anne-Siri
Smith, George Davey
Stoltenberg, Camilla

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Child Development Disorders, Pervasive