Child of Impaired Parents

Publication Title: 
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

Alcoholism etiology is discussed from a developmental behavior genetic perspective. At the outset point, temperament characteristics, by means of ongoing and reciprocal interaction with the social environment, shape the course of behavioral development. The behavioral characteristics successively acquired during development are vectors that determine the ontogenetic trajectory that culminates ultimately in the clinical disorder of alcoholism. The temperament features that appear to be associated with a heightened risk for alcoholism are examined.

Author(s): 
Tarter, R. E.
Vanyukov, M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychiatric Research

BACKGROUND: A significant association between parental PTSD and the occurrence of PTSD in offspring has been noted, consistent with the idea that risk for the development of PTSD is transmitted from parent to child. Two recent reports linking maternal PTSD and low offspring cortisol prompted us to examine the relative contributions of maternal vs. paternal PTSD in the prediction of PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses in offspring.

Author(s): 
Yehuda, Rachel
Bell, Amanda
Bierer, Linda M.
Schmeidler, James
Publication Title: 
Early Intervention in Psychiatry

AIM: The study aims to provide a selective review of the literature pertaining to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune abnormalities as informative biological indicators of vulnerability in bipolar disorder (BD). METHOD: We summarize key findings relating to HPA axis and immunological abnormalities in bipolar patients and their high-risk offspring. Findings derive from a review of selected original papers published in the literature, and supplemented by papers identified through bibliography review.

Author(s): 
Duffy, Anne
Lewitzka, Ute
Doucette, Sarah
Andreazza, Ana
Grof, Paul
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone.

Author(s): 
Lehrner, Amy
Bierer, Linda M.
Passarelli, Vincent
Pratchett, Laura C.
Flory, Janine D.
Bader, Heather N.
Harris, Iris R.
Bedi, Aarti
Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.
Makotkine, Iouri
Yehuda, Rachel
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: Differential effects of maternal and paternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been observed in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors in both glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and vulnerability to psychiatric disorder. The authors examined the relative influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on DNA methylation of the exon 1F promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-1F) gene (NR3C1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its relationship to glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in Holocaust offspring.

Author(s): 
Yehuda, Rachel
Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.
Lehrner, Amy
Desarnaud, Frank
Bader, Heather N.
Makotkine, Iouri
Flory, Janine D.
Bierer, Linda M.
Meaney, Michael J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Drug Education

Substance abuse is associated with a host of harmful consequences to the substance user as well as other individuals and society as a whole. Although harm is an integral component of substance abuse, there is a dearth of research that investigates the relationship between harm and substance use problems. The goal of this study was to explore recovering substance users' retrospective perceptions of harm caused to self and others during periods of substance abuse and the resulting association with the development of problem awareness and treatment perspectives.

Author(s): 
Droege, Jocelyn R.
Stevens, Edward B.
Jason, Leonard A.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatry

Early theorists described physical diseases (e.g., asthma, ulcers) thought to be associated with the inhibition of weeping (e.g., Alexander 1950), and catharsis theories (Breuer and Freud 1895/1955; Koestler 1964) postulated that unexpressed emotion accumulated as in a tank, and then overflowed as tears when a threshold level was exceeded. From a more biological perspective, it has been suggested that stress produces toxic chemicals in the body that become concentrated in the lacrimal gland and are released through weeping, restoring homeostasis (Frey 1985).

Author(s): 
Labott, S. M.
Elliott, R.
Eason, P. S.
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science

The study tested Bowlby's hypothesis that experiencing the poor relating of parents in childhood predisposes the individual to poor relating in adult life. Data were drawn from two community samples: a younger sample of 25-34-year-old married women, and an older one of 40-49-year-old women. Data were also drawn from the husbands of the women in the younger sample. It focused on the single childhood variable of the recollection of poor maternal care.

Author(s): 
Birtchnell, J.
Publication Title: 
Psyche

This study is not concerned, as the title might suggest, with the actual death of the mother but with the child's experience of a mother who is physically present but internally absent due to depression. The child simultaneously introjects and splits off the mother imago, making mourning and "burial" equally impossible. The consequence of this cathectic deprivation is what the author calls "psychic holes" or "white depression".

Author(s): 
Green, A.
Publication Title: 
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science

BACKGROUND: Clarification is still required of the nature of pathological love. METHOD: A series is presented of 16 personally assessed cases with pathologies of love (erotomania). RESULTS: The pathologies of love usually involve a mixture of morbid infatuation and a morbid belief in being loved. They occur both in a symptomatic form, as part of an underlying mental illness, as well as in a pure form, where their emergence is to some extent understandable in a vulnerable personality. These disorders often go unrecognised to the detriment of clinical management.

Author(s): 
Mullen, P. E.
PathÈ, M.

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