With recent developments in community psychiatric services, concern with prevention has become an urgent social, as well as medical challenge. Comprehensive investigation into causation must therefore be given systematic emphasis. This paper is an effort toward clarification of etiology, specifically of the depressive disorder, in terms of early childhood experiences.
In an attempt to investigate the parental rearing patterns associated with presence of suicidal thoughts, a measure of child rearing patterns (EMBU) and the EPQ measure of personality dimensions were administered to 85 university students, 72 medical and surgical patients, and 125 employees of a state department, along with two questions tapping suicidal thoughts.
The occurrence of possible differences in rearing practices related to social class has been investigated in a series of 125 depressed patients by means of a special inventory - the EMBU - constructed by our group. Three factors derived from the EMBU in the course of previous studies: "rejection", "emotional warmth", "overprotection" have been taken into account. The rearing practices experienced by subjects belonging to different social classes did not differ concerning "emotional warmth".
Parenting has first to be learnt and then worked throughout the child's development. The cost of optimal development is the parent's continued loving awareness of all his needs. Parents today are avid for information which will help them to bring up their children so that each child will be given every opportunity to develop his full potential. Consequently, it is the responsibility of all those involved in helping parents care for their children to increase their understanding of child development.
Young adult male homosexuals were recruited from a homosexual group and were given the Roe-Siegelman Parent-Child Relations questionnaire and the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale. Compared to a control group of heterosexuals, the homosexual group rated their mothers significantly more rejecting and their fathers less loving and more rejecting. The Love-Reject factor also showed the between-groups difference for the ratings of fathers; for mothers, the Love-Reject factor difference was marginally significant.
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis
Grandparenthood can have multiple meanings for grandparents just as grandchildhood can have diverse meanings for grandchildren. Ideally the joys of being a grandparent help to compensate for life's sorrows, although premature grandparenthood may be experienced instead as a nuisance or even a burden if grandparents have to assume parental responsibilities. Of course, storybook grandparents including the grandfathers of Heidi, Little Lord Fauntleroy, and the Box Car Children, never seem to resent having to act as surrogate parents.
Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
The relationship of depressive disorders with early parental losses and rearing experiences was studied among 120 pregnant women. They were diagnosed following the Research Diagnostic Criteria using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Loss experience was defined either as loss of a parent before the age of 16 by death, or separation for 12 months or longer. The perceived rearing experience was examined by administering the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). An onset of depressive disorders, antenatal depression, was observed among 19 (16%) women.
[Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
The birth of twins is associated with an increased risk of child abuse and neglect. It is reported that one twin rather than both twins tend to be abused in most of the abused twin children and most of abusers are the mothers in Japan. This means that maternal attachment feeling to one twin differs from the other one. In this study, we have conducted a mailed questionnaires survey for 123 mothers of twins in order to clarify the relationship between the maternal attachment feeling to their twin children and various environmental-family factors. The following results were obtained.
AIM: The graded care profile (GCP) scale was developed as a practical tool in response to the Children Act 1989 to provide a measure of care in four areas: physical, safety, love, and esteem, on a bipolar continuum. This field trial was to assess its user friendliness and inter-rater agreement. METHODS: 43 nursery children and 11 registered for neglect were each scored on this scale independently by two different raters (health visitor and nursery teacher or social worker).
This article reviews empirical studies of same-sex couples in the United States, highlighting consistent findings, drawing comparisons to heterosexual couples, and noting gaps in available research. U.S. Census data indicate that there were more than 600,000 same-sex couples living together in 2000. Research about relationship formation, the division of household labor, power, satisfaction, sexuality, conflict, commitment, and relationship stability is presented.