Medicinal plants described in the Indian "Ayurvedic" literature viz. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Gulvel (Tinospora cardifolia), bitter Neem (Azadirachta indica), Kanher (Nerium Andicum), Vekhand (Acorus calamus), and Peacock's feather (ash) were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis.
An important aspect of the risk of cancer is the involvement of the inflammatory response. Currently, antiinflammatory agents are used in chemopreventive strategies. For example, aspirin is recommended for the prevention of colon cancer as well as breast and other cancers. The inflammatory response involves the production of cytokines and proinflammatory oxidants such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and peroxynitrite (ONO2-) produced by neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. These oxidants react with phenolic tyrosine residues on proteins to form chloro- and nitrotyrosine.
Extracts from the roots and rhizomes of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) are widely used as dietary supplements to alleviate menopausal symptoms. State-of-the-art quality control measures involve phytochemical fingerprinting of the triterpene glycosides for species identification and chemical standardization by HPLC. In the course of developing materials and methods for standardization procedures, the major C. racemosa triterpene glycoside (1) was isolated and initially thought to be cimicifugoside (2).
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
The genetic basis for the underlying individual susceptibility to chlorine-induced acute lung injury is unknown. To uncover the genetic basis and pathophysiological processes that could provide additional homeostatic capacities during lung injury, 40 inbred murine strains were exposed to chlorine, and haplotype association mapping was performed. The identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were evaluated through transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling.
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Inflammation is associated with various pulmonary diseases and contributes to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury. We previously identified a proinflammatory signaling pathway triggered by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in which stimulation of G(q)-coupled GPCRs results in activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Because damage to the lung causes the release of multiple mediators acting through G(q)-coupled GPCRs, this signaling pathway is likely to contribute to inflammatory processes in the injured lung.