Chloroquine

Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Eleven Thai isolates and one West African isolate of Plasmodium falciparum were tested for their susceptibility to the Chinese antimalarial drugs artemisinine (qinghaosu) and artemether. The isolates were cultivated by the Trager-Jensen candle-jar technique and exposed to the action of the drugs for 36-48 hours. Artemisinine inhibited growth of most isolates at 10(-7)-10(-8) mol/litre and artemether at 10(-8) mol/litre (with an initial parasitaemia of 0.5-1.0%).

Author(s): 
Thaithong, S.
Beale, G. H.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

Plasmodium falciparum infecting hemoglobin (Hb) H and/or Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes in vitro was relatively more resistant than that infecting normal erythrocytes to artesunate and chloroquine, while the sensitivity to pyrimethamine was unchanged. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for artesunate in HbH (alpha-thal 1/alpha-thal 2), HbH (alpha-thal 1/Hb Constant Spring), and homozygous Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes were 4.5 +/- 2.8, 8.5 +/- 3.2, and 2.6 +/- 1.6 nM compared with 0.82 +/- 0.35 nM in normal erythrocytes (P less than 0.002 for all three cases).

Author(s): 
Yuthavong, Y.
Butthep, P.
Bunyaratvej, A.
Fucharoen, S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation

Plasmodium falciparum infecting hemoglobin (Hb)H and/or Hb Constant Spring erythrocytes has higher resistance to artemisinin in vitro than when infecting normal erythrocytes. This is due to low drug accumulation of infected erythrocytes resulting from competition with uninfected variant erythrocytes, which have a higher accumulation capacity than genetically normal cells. Drug accumulation of the parasite was shown to be saturable and dependent on metabolic energy.

Author(s): 
Kamchonwongpaisan, S.
Chandra-ngam, G.
Avery, M. A.
Yuthavong, Y.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Plasmodium berghei ANKA infected C57B1/6 mice develop cerebral malaria at a parasitaemia of 15-25%. When parasitaemia reached 10%, P. berghei infected mice were treated with artemether, chloroquine or clindamycin in order to prevent the occurrence of cerebral malaria. Artemether and chloroquine were highly efficient. Functional tests revealed that zymosan stimulated spleen cells from untreated mice with cerebral malaria showed a slight decrease in their capacity to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) when compared with naive mice.

Author(s): 
Prada, J.
Müller, S.
Bienzle, U.
Kremsner, P. G.
Publication Title: 
FEBS letters

We recently demonstrated that 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyxanthone (X5) inhibits the in vitro growth of both chloroquine-sensitive and multidrug-resistant strains of P. falciparum. To study the molecular basis of its antimalarial action, we tested X5 and selected hydroxyxanthone analogs as inhibitors of in vitro heme polymerization in a low ionic strength phosphate solution at mildly acidic pH. We found that addition of 1 Eq. of X5 resulted in complete inhibition of polymerization in this system whereas addition of up to 40 Eqs.

Author(s): 
Ignatushchenko, M. V.
Winter, R. W.
Bächinger, H. P.
Hinrichs, D. J.
Riscoe, M. K.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The in vitro activity of artemether against 56 African isolates of Plasmodium falciparum from Senegal was evaluated using an isotope-based drug susceptibility semi-microtest. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for artemether were in a narrow range from 0.8 to 15.2 nM (mean IC50 = 3.43 nM) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.50-4.36 nM. Artemether was equally effective on chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant isolates (mean IC50 = 346 nM, 95% CI = 2.08-4.84 nM versus mean IC50 = 2.80 nM, 95% CI = 2.00-3.60 nM).

Author(s): 
Pradines, B.
Rogier, C.
Fusai, T.
Tall, A.
Trape, J. F.
Doury, J. C.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, mefloquine, quinine, quinidine, halofantrine, artemisinin, and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was investigated in Lambarene, Gabon in 1994. The development of in vitro susceptibility has been traced from 1983 or 1992 to 1994 for chloroquine, mefloquine, halofantrine, and quinine. Standard in vitro microtests according to World Health Organization methodology were performed.

Author(s): 
Philipps, J.
Radloff, P. D.
Wernsdorfer, W.
Kremsner, P. G.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a new compound drug (CGP 56697) against acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria. METHOD: Reappearing parasites were analysed by PCR-RFLP within a randomized controlled trial. 130 patients received chloroquine and 130 patients were treated with CGP 56697. Samples from 96 patients with parasitological failure were tested by PCR-RFLP for MSP2 of Plasmodium falciparum. Seven days after treatment 32 patients of the chloroquine control group with reappearing parasites were tested by PCR and one infection was unequivocally determined as a new infection.

Author(s): 
Irion, A.
Felger, I.
Abdulla, S.
Smith, T.
Mull, R.
Tanner, M.
Hatz, C.
Beck, H. P.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

A randomized, open trial involving 260 Tanzanian children, aged 1-5 years, with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the combination antimalarial CGP 56697 (artemether and benflumetol), and to compare it with chloroquine, the standard drug used for malaria treatment in the Kilombero area. Children who had received rescue medication within the first 48 h or had a negative slide at the same time were excluded. Seven-day parasitological cure rates were 94% (95% CI 88-97.5) for CGP 56697 and 35.4% (95% CI 25.9-45.8) for chloroquine.

Author(s): 
Hatz, C.
Abdulla, S.
Mull, R.
Schellenberg, D.
Gathmann, I.
Kibatala, P.
Beck, H. P.
Tanner, M.
Royce, C.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity has been detected in rodent (Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii), simian (P. knowlesi) and human (P. falciparum) malarial parasites, and in different intraerythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi (schizont > ring > trophozoite). In chloroquine-resistant strains of rodent and human malarial parasites GST activity significantly increases compared to sensitive strains. Further, the increase in enzyme activity is directly related to drug pressure of resistant P. berghei. Complete inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive and resistant P.

Author(s): 
Srivastava, P.
Puri, S. K.
Kamboj, K. K.
Pandey, V. C.

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