Choice Behavior

Publication Title: 
American Journal of Health Behavior

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of health screening interventions aimed at enhancing informed choice. METHODS: Studies were selected if (1) they were randomized controlled trials conducted between January 1, 2000, and March 30, 2010, (2) participants in one arm underwent a prescreening intervention aimed at improving informed choice, and (3) informed choice was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Eight studies that met the inclusion criteria involved screening for prostate, colorectal and breast cancer, and diabetes. Five of the 8 prescreening interventions led to greater informed choice.

Author(s): 
Biesecker, Barbara Bowles
Schwartz, Marc D.
Marteau, Theresa M.
Publication Title: 
European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)

In the coming years, European death rates because of cancer will further decline, but the overall number of cases will increase, mostly as a consequence of the ageing of the population. The target for cancer prevention in Europe will remain a healthy diet and control of obesity in addition to a decrease in smoking. A healthy diet model in European countries is the traditional Mediterranean diet, which is based on abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat, low intake of (red) meat and moderate consumption of wine.

Author(s): 
Giacosa, Attilio
Barale, Roberto
Bavaresco, Luigi
Gatenby, Piers
Gerbi, Vincenzo
Janssens, Jaak
Johnston, Belinda
Kas, Koen
La Vecchia, Carlo
Mainguet, Paul
Morazzoni, Paolo
Negri, Eva
Pelucchi, Claudio
Pezzotti, Mario
Rondanelli, Mariangela
Publication Title: 
Nature Methods

A critical requirement for research using model organisms is a well-defined and consistent diet. There is currently no complete chemically defined (holidic) diet available for Drosophila melanogaster. We describe a holidic medium that is equal in performance to an oligidic diet optimized for adult fecundity and lifespan. This holidic diet supports development over multiple generations but at a reduced rate. Over 7 years of experiments, the holidic diet yielded more consistent experimental outcomes than did oligidic food for egg laying by females.

Author(s): 
Piper, Matthew D. W.
Blanc, Eric
Leit„o-GonÁalves, Ricardo
Yang, Mingyao
He, Xiaoli
Linford, Nancy J.
Hoddinott, Matthew P.
Hopfen, Corinna
Soultoukis, George A.
Niemeyer, Christine
Kerr, Fiona
Pletcher, Scott D.
Ribeiro, Carlos
Partridge, Linda
Publication Title: 
The Psychoanalytic Quarterly

Any considerations of object relations theory and love requires a clear understanding of how the term, object relations, is used. In this contribution the concept of the object as a mental representation is emphasized. Developmentally, the evolution of the object cannot be separated from the vicissitudes of the drives. Sensorimotor experience is metaphorically assimilated in terms of pleasure-unpleasure components. Since the object concept develops in this context, it is inextricably linked to the vicissitudes of the drives.

Author(s): 
Arlow, J. A.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Psychology

In 2 experiments, the researcher investigated the social desirability of different love styles (Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma, Mania, and Agape). In Experiment 1, the Marlowe-Crowne measure of social desirability (D. P. Crowne & D. Marlowe, 1960) was correlated negatively with possessive, dependent (Mania) love styles in both men and women. In men, social desirability was correlated positively with romantic, passionate love (Eros) and game-playing love (Ludus), but negatively with all-giving, selfless love (Agape).

Author(s): 
Davies, M. F.
Publication Title: 
Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

Although a number of studies have explored the ways that men and women romantically attract mates, almost no research exists on the special tactics people use when already in a relationship and trying to attract someone new--a process known as mate poaching enticement. In Study 1, the authors investigated the tactics people use to entice others into making mate poaching attempts. Enticement tactic effectiveness conformed to evolutionary-predicted patterns across sex and temporal context. In Study 2, the authors examined the tactics men and women use to disguise mate poaching enticement.

Author(s): 
Schmitt, David P.
Shackelford, Todd K.
Publication Title: 
Nursing Science Quarterly

This column seeks to contribute to the understanding of the concept of sacrifice and its significance to nursing through an extensive account of relevant literature from the disciplines of theology, sociology, anthropology, and psychology. The review uncovered that in sacrificing something of value, individuals anticipate connecting with families, groups, society, and deities.

Author(s): 
Florczak, Kristine L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

From the perspective of implicit egotism people should gravitate toward others who resemble them because similar others activate people's positive, automatic associations about themselves. Four archival studies and 3 experiments supported this hypothesis. Studies 1-4 showed that people are disproportionately likely to marry others whose first or last names resemble their own. Studies 5-7 provided experimental support for implicit egotism.

Author(s): 
Jones, John T.
Pelham, Brett W.
Carvallo, Mauricio
Mirenberg, Matthew C.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Comparative Neurology

Scientists have described myriad traits in mammalian and avian species that evolved to attract mates. But the brain mechanisms by which conspecifics become attracted to these traits is largely unknown. Yet mammals and birds express mate preferences and make mate choices, and data suggest that this "attraction system" is associated with the dopaminergic reward system. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system.

Author(s): 
Fisher, Helen
Aron, Arthur
Brown, Lucy L.
Publication Title: 
Nursing Science Quarterly

The purposes of this research, using the Parse method, were to discover the structure of sacrificing something important and to expand the theory of human becoming. The core concepts of relinquishing the cherished, shifting preferred options, and fortifying affiliations were discovered during the process of extraction-synthesis using synopses of dialogues from 10 church parishioners.

Author(s): 
Florczak, Kristine L.

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