Zeitschrift F¸r Die Gesamte Innere Medizin Und Ihre Grenzgebiete
Proceeding from experiences with animal-experimental studies is tried to show all those mechanisms which have influence on the ageing process of man. In these cases in the experimental part of the study is particularly investigated the influence of the restriction of food in obese patients on the cardiovascular system, the lipid metabolism and the biological age. In obese patients of middle age by isocaloric reduction diet a normalisation of the at present changed non-invasive cardiodynamic parameters could be achieved.
The scientific foundations for risk factor modification in the elderly are three-fold: (1) data from long-term prospective population studies demonstrating significant independent relationships between established major risk factors--particularly blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), serum cholesterol, cigarette use, clinical diabetes--and risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality; (2) data from population studies on time trends of mass changes in major risk factors and parallel changes in CV mortality rates, including large sustained declines; (3) data from randomized controll
Changes in lipid metabolism with age result in lower total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein concentrations. There is no evidence that longevity and lipid profiles are influenced by genetic make-up. It is difficult to establish an optimum total serum cholesterol in the elderly but values established in younger subjects give a guide. High-density lipoprotein may be even more protective in the elderly and could turn out to be a better predictor of coronary disease. Screening for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia should be carried out in the elderly.
OBJECTIVES: The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 mandates the Food and Drug Administration to promulgate changes in nutrition labeling regulations. This study investigates the potential health benefits associated with expected changes in food consumption resulting from the act. METHODS: This paper provides four estimates of the potential health benefits from the dietary changes expected to occur as a result of the 1990 act. The upper bound estimates begin with the premise that all consumers will adopt the daily reference values of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.
Our specific aim in a 10-year prospective study of 772 Cincinnati firemen (predominantly aged 26 to 46 years) was to determine the prevalence, attributes, and etiology of persistent hypobetalipoproteinemia, defined by entry low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) less than 75 mg/dL. A second specific aim was to cross-sectionally assess hypocholesterolemia (defined by total serum cholesterol [TC] < 130 mg/dL) in 1,314 white and 165 black men aged 26 to 46 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I).
Recent studies in man and human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic animals emphasize the significance of apolipoprotein A-I and high density lipoprotein in antiatherogenesis. Several drugs and other compounds, e.g. phenobarbital, gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, prednisone, estrogen and alcohol, induce apolipoprotein A-I synthesis. They commonly produce serum lipoprotein patterns typical of a low risk of coronary heart disease, and many of them have been found to prevent atherogenesis, reduce coronary heart disease mortality and increase survival.
Anthropological evidence suggests that regional differences in eating practices may be characterized by sub-ethnicity. Hakka is one sub-ethnicity who still retain a unique way of life in China. A field survey on diet and health among the Hakka people was undertaken in 1994. Approximately 200 participants were interviewed for their medical history, life-style and food habits. Blood pressure, body mass index, blood sample, 24 h urine and electrocardiogram were collected. The food samples taken from one tenth of the participants were analyzed for the ingredients in their daily meals.
The relationship of nutrient intakes to life expectancies in Japan since the Second World War has demonstrated that sufficient intakes of animal protein and fat are crucial for attaining longevity. In the community dwelling elderly, the higher the serum albumin was, the longer the further life expectancy in the elderly. Serum total cholesterol showed a U-shape relationship to further life expectancies in the elderly. Low serum cholesterol was deleterious for higher levels of functional capacity.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a difference in risk-factor improvement for coronary heart disease (CHD) between the intra-abdominal fat (IF) and subcutaneous fat (SF) obesity phenotypes after weight loss. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Subjects included 55 mildly obese women (body mass index, 25 to 36 kg/m(2); age range, 34 to 63 years) who had at least two of three CHD risk factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP), >140 mm Hg; total cholesterol (TC), >220 mg/dL; fasting plasma glucose, >110 mg/dL).
Fundamental questions on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are how nontoxic, soluble amyloid beta-protein (A beta) is converted to its toxic, aggregated form and how functional tau is hyperphosphorylated to form neurofibrillary tangles. Growing evidence from recent biochemical and cell biological studies suggests that altered cholesterol metabolism in neurons may underlie such pathological processes. The possibility that cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of AD has also been supported by recent epidemiological studies.