Cell adhesion and spreading is a crucial step in the metastatic cascade of cancer cells, and interruption of this step is considered to be a logical strategy for prevention and treatment of tumor metastasis. Emodin is the major active component of the rhizome of Rheum palmatum L., with known anticancer activities. Here, we first found that emodin significantly inhibited cell adhesion of various human cancer cells.
Androgen-dependent human LNCaP 104-S tumor xenografts progressed to androgen-independent relapsed tumors (104-Rrel) in athymic mice after castration. The growth of 104-Rrel tumors was suppressed by testosterone. However, 104-Rrel tumors adapted to androgen and regrew as androgen-stimulated 104-Radp tumors. Androgen receptor expression in tumors and serum prostate-specific antigen increased during progression from 104-S to 104-Rrel but decreased during transition from 104-Rrel to 104-Radp. Expression of genes related to liver X receptor (LXR) signaling changed during progression.
Since trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) enhances glucose metabolism, interest in the use of Cr(3+)as a therapy for type 2 diabetes has grown in the mainstream medical community. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that Cr(3+) may also benefit cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atypical depression. We have found that cholesterol, a lipid implicated in both CVD and neurodegenerative disorders, also influences cellular glucose uptake. A recent study in our laboratory shows that exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to chromium picolinate (CrPic, 10 nM) induces a loss of plasma membrane cholesterol.
We conducted this study to determine whether green tea constituents, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, affect the intestinal absorption of cholesterol (CH), fat, and other fat-soluble compounds. Ovariectomized rats with lymph cannula were infused intraduodenally with a lipid emulsion containing 14C-labeled CH (14C-CH), alpha-tocopherol (alpha TOH), triolein, and sodium taurocholate, without (control) or with EGCG, caffeine, or EGCG plus caffeine, in PBS, pH 6.5.
Glucosamine, commonly consumed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, is classified as a nutritional supplement; however, there are few data regarding its metabolic or vascular effects. Glucosamine is a component of the hexosamine pathway, which has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Anecdotal reports suggest that glucosamine consumption can increase circulating cholesterol concentrations.
ACAT2, the enzyme responsible for the formation of cholesteryl esters incorporated into apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins by the small intestine and liver, forms predominantly cholesteryl oleate from acyl-CoA and free cholesterol. The accumulation of cholesteryl oleate in plasma lipoproteins has been found to be predictive of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, a method was developed in which fatty acyl-CoA subspecies could be extracted from mouse liver and quantified.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVES: The enzyme acyl-coenzymeA (CoA):cholesterol O-acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) in the liver synthesizes cholesteryl esters (CE) from cholesterol and fatty acyl-CoA, which get incorporated into apoB-containing lipoproteins that are secreted into the bloodstream. Dietary fatty acid composition influences the amount and fatty acid composition of CE within apoB-containing lipoproteins.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
CONTEXT: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes (TIDM). TIDM is a proinflammatory state. Whereas there is consensus on lipid management in type 2 diabetes, there is a lack of data in type 1 diabetes. In addition to benefits on the lipid profile, statin therapy is antiinflammatory. OBJECTIVE: There are scant data on statin therapy in T1DM. Thus, we tested the effect of simvastatin, compared with placebo, on biomarkers of inflammation and monocyte function in TIDM patients.
Clinical use of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors such as ritonavir may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effects and molecular mechanisms of ritonavir on cholesterol efflux from human macrophage-derived foam cells, which is a critical factor of atherogenesis. Human THP-1 monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were preincubated with acetylated low-density lipoprotein and [(3)H]cholesterol to form foam cells, which were then treated with apolipoprotein A-I for cholesterol efflux assay.
BACKGROUND: Vascular inflammation and lipid deposition are prominent features of atherosclerotic lesion formation. We have shown previously that the dithiol compound alpha-lipoic acid (LA) exerts antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial and monocyte activation in vitro and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammatory responses in vivo.