Cholesterol

Publication Title: 
Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)

Previously, we found that a loss of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-regulated filamentous actin (F-actin) structure contributes to insulin-induced insulin resistance. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that chromium picolinate (CrPic), a dietary supplement thought to improve glycemic status in insulin-resistant individuals, augments insulin-regulated glucose transport in insulin-sensitive 3T3-L1 adipocytes by lowering PM cholesterol.

Author(s): 
Horvath, Emily M.
Tackett, Lixuan
McCarthy, Alicia M.
Raman, Priya
Brozinick, Joseph T.
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Changes in diet over the past century have markedly altered the consumption of fatty acids. The dramatic increase in the ingestion of saturated and n-6 fatty acids and concomitant decrease in n-3 fatty acids are thought to be a major driver of the increase in the incidence of inflammatory diseases such as asthma, allergy, and atherosclerosis.

Author(s): 
Chilton, Floyd H.
Rudel, Lawrence L.
Parks, John S.
Arm, Jonathan P.
Seeds, Michael C.
Publication Title: 
AIDS research and human retroviruses

As HAART becomes more accessible in sub-Saharan Africa, metabolic syndromes, body fat redistribution (BFR), and cardiovascular disease may become more prevalent. We conducted a 6-month, randomized controlled trial to test whether cardiorespiratory exercise training (CET), improves metabolic, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in HAART-treated HIV(+) African subjects with BFR.

Author(s): 
Mutimura, Eugene
Crowther, Nigel J.
Cade, Todd W.
Yarasheski, Kevin E.
Stewart, Aimee
Publication Title: 
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

We recently found that chromium picolinate (CrPic), a nutritional supplement thought to improve insulin sensitivity in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, enhances insulin action by lowering plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol. Recent in vivo studies suggest that cholesterol-lowering statin drugs benefit insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant patients, yet a mechanism is unknown. We report here that atorvastatin (ATV) diminished PM cholesterol by 22% (P<0.05) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. As documented for CrPic, this small reduction in PM cholesterol enhanced insulin action.

Author(s): 
Horvath, Emily M.
Tackett, Lixuan
Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Macrophage-specific Abca1 knock-out (Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M)) mice were generated to determine the role of macrophage ABCA1 expression in plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the innate immune response of macrophages. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in chow-fed Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) and wild-type (WT) mice were indistinguishable.

Author(s): 
Zhu, Xuewei
Lee, Ji-Young
Timmins, Jenelle M.
Brown, J. Mark
Boudyguina, Elena
Mulya, Anny
Gebre, Abraham K.
Willingham, Mark C.
Hiltbold, Elizabeth M.
Mishra, Nilamadhab
Maeda, Nobuyo
Parks, John S.
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have addressed whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are associated with cognitive function in middle-aged and older populations, as well as whether specific areas of cognition are more affected than others. We examined the cross-sectional association between MetS and six areas of cognitive function in healthy cognitively intact adults without diabetes (n = 853, mean age 61 years) randomized in two intervention trials. METHODS: The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria were used to identify subjects with MetS.

Author(s): 
Gatto, Nicole M.
Henderson, Victor W.
St John, Jan A.
McCleary, Carol
Hodis, Howard N.
Mack, Wendy J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Recent studies have demonstrated that green and black tea consumption can lower serum cholesterol in animals and in man, and suppression of hepatic cholesterol synthesis is suggested to contribute to this effect. To evaluate this hypothesis, we measured cholesterol synthesis in cultured rat hepatoma cells in the presence of green and black tea extracts and selected components. Green and black tea decreased cholesterol synthesis by up to 55% and 78%, respectively, as measured by a 3-h incorporation of radiolabeled acetate.

Author(s): 
Singh, Dev K.
Banerjee, Subhashis
Porter, Todd D.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: Survey findings report that 48% of people with type 2 diabetes use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practice. Publications suggest a high incidence of health promotion counseling in naturopathic practice, yet clinical data on risk factor changes are not available in the literature. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to describe clinical risk factor changes during the utilization of naturopathic CAM services in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A retrospective, observational study design was used to describe naturopathic care.

Author(s): 
Bradley, Ryan
Kozura, Eva
Buckle, Heather
Kaltunas, Jennifer
Tais, Setareh
Standish, Leanna J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

The present study tested the long-term effects of dietary kudzu root extract supplementation on the regulation of arterial pressure, plasma glucose, and circulating cholesterol in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SP-SHR). Female SP-SHR were maintained for 2 months on a polyphenol-free diet, with or without the addition of 0.2% kudzu root extract. Half of the rats in each diet group were ovariectomized, whereas the other half remained intact.

Author(s): 
Peng, Ning
Prasain, Jeevan K.
Dai, Yanying
Moore, Ray
Arabshahi, Alireza
Barnes, Stephen
Carlson, Scott
Wyss, J. Michael
Publication Title: 
Journal of Lipid Research

The atheroprotective potential of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) has not yet been fully determined, even in murine models of atherosclerosis. We tested whether ALA-derived, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) could offer atheroprotection in a dose-dependent manner. Apolipoprotein B (ApoB)100/100LDLr-/- mice were fed with diets containing two levels of ALA from flaxseed oil for 16 weeks. Fish oil- and cis-monounsaturated-fat-enriched diets were used as positive and negative controls, respectively.

Author(s): 
Degirolamo, Chiara
Kelley, Kathryn L.
Wilson, Martha D.
Rudel, Lawrence L.

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