The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
General anesthetics cause sedation, hypnosis, and immobilization via CNS mechanisms that remain incompletely understood; contributions of particular anesthetic targets in specific neural pathways remain largely unexplored. Among potential molecular targets for mediating anesthetic actions, members of the TASK subgroup [TASK-1 (K2P3.1) and TASK-3 (K2P9.1)] of background K(+) channels are appealing candidates since they are expressed in CNS sites relevant to anesthetic actions and activated by clinically relevant concentrations of inhaled anesthetics.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)
Trasina is a herbal formulation of some Indian medicinal plants classified in Ayurveda, the classic Indian system of medicine, as Medhyarasayanas or drugs reputed to improve memory and intellect. Earlier experimental and clinical investigations have indicated that the formulation has a memory-facilitating action. In this investigation, the effect of Trasina, after subchronic administration for 21 days, was assessed on two rodent models simulating some biochemical features known to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD).
The effect of orally fed Maharishi Amrit Kalash was examined on the activities of cholinergic enzymes in the guinea pig brain. The activity of the cholinergic enzymes viz. choline-acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase enzymes was found to be reduced significantly (P<0.05) in the various regions of CNS of the aged guinea pigs. Oral administration of MAK(500 mg/kg body weight daily) for 2 months significantly increased (P<0.05) the activity of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in the older animals.
The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbm)-lesioned rat is considered to be a model of the cholinergic dysfunction observed in the cerebral cortices of Alzheimer's disease patients. The cholinergic markers, acetylcholine release and choline acetyltransferase activity, were decreased in the cerebral cortex of the nbm-lesioned rat. Kangenkaryu (KAN), a Chinese traditional medicine, is a typical prescription for the treatment of symptoms related to blood circulation deficiency. Orally administered KAN following the nbm lesion significantly preserved the cholinergic markers.
We investigated the neuritogenic effects of Tremella fuciformis (TF), which has been valued in traditional Chinese medicine as a remedy with nutritive and tonic actions, on PC12h cells. The cognitive improving effects of TF on scopolamine-induced (2 mg/kg, s.c.) amnesia in rats were also evaluated with using the Morris water maze task and by performing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. The water extract of TF (0.01-1 microg/ml) promoted neurite outgrowth of the PC12h cells in a dose dependent manner.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the effect of estrogen on the production of acetylcholine in the brain and to study the regulatory role of acupuncture of Zusanli acupoint in acetylcholine production in the brain of ovariectomized rats. Experimental female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: intact group (INT), ovariectomized group (OVX), and ovariectomy and acupuncture group (OVX+AC). Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to measure the estrogen content in plasma.
Many studies have shown that Bupleurum falcatum (BF), which is widely used in the treatment of various psychosomatic diseases in traditional Oriental medicine, is an effective therapeutic intervention for memory impairment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of BF on stress-induced alterations in learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) behavioral tests.
Many studies have shown that the steamed root of Rehmannia glutinosa (SRG), which is widely used in the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases in the context of Korean traditional medicine, is effective for improving cognitive and memory impairments. The purpose of this study was to examine whether SRG extracts improved memory defects caused by administering scopolamine (SCO) into the brains of rats. The effects of SRG on the acetylcholinergic system and proinflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus were also investigated.
Acupuncture regulates autonomic function. Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at the Jianshi-Neiguan acupoints (P5-P6, underlying the median nerve) inhibits central sympathetic outflow and attenuates excitatory cardiovascular reflexes, in part, through an opioid mechanism. It is unknown if EA at these acupoints influences the parasympathetic system. Thus, using c-Fos expression, we examined activation of nucleus ambiguus (NAmb) neurons by EA, their relation to cholinergic (preganglionic parasympathetic) neurons and those containing enkephalin.