Cholinesterase Inhibitors

Publication Title: 
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists

BACKGROUND: Currently, only one medication (risperidone) is FDA-approved for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Perhaps for this reason, the use of novel, unconventional, and off-label treatments for ASD is common, with up to 74% of children with ASD using these treatments; however, treating physicians are often unaware of this usage. METHODS: A systematic literature search of electronic scientific databases was performed to identify studies of novel and emerging treatments for ASD, including nutritional supplements, diets, medications, and nonbiological treatments.

Author(s): 
Rossignol, Daniel A.
Publication Title: 
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists

BACKGROUND: Currently, only one medication (risperidone) is FDA-approved for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Perhaps for this reason, the use of novel, unconventional, and off-label treatments for ASD is common, with up to 74% of children with ASD using these treatments; however, treating physicians are often unaware of this usage. METHODS: A systematic literature search of electronic scientific databases was performed to identify studies of novel and emerging treatments for ASD, including nutritional supplements, diets, medications, and nonbiological treatments.

Author(s): 
Rossignol, Daniel A.
Publication Title: 
BMC complementary and alternative medicine

BACKGROUND: Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, "Attarin" drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory).

Author(s): 
Ali, Shereen K.
Hamed, Ahmed R.
Soltan, Maha M.
Hegazy, Usama M.
Elgorashi, Esameldin E.
El-Garf, Ibrahim A.
Hussein, Ahmed A.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method.

Author(s): 
Mathew, Maya
Subramanian, Sarada
Publication Title: 
Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamie Et De Thérapie

Interactions of cholinesterase inhibitors or dexamethasone with the hypnotic effect of benzodiazepines appear to be strongly dependent on the dose of the cholinesterase inhibitor used and to a lesser extent on the dose of the hypnotic. The duration of the loss of righting reflex caused by the benzodiazepines, diazepam or chlorodiazepoxide, is markedly prolonged by 500 micrograms/kg, significantly antagonized both diazepam and chlorodiazepoxide. Relatively higher doses of physostigmine have no significant effect on either diazepam or chlorodiazepoxide.

Author(s): 
Leeuwin, R. S.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

IDPH-791, when injected (ip) to mice potentiated the pentobarbitone sleeping time in a dose dependent manner. Involvement of neurotransmitters and receptors in this effect was studied using various receptor blockers, enzyme inhibitors, agonist and an amine depletor. Pretreatment with high dose of yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg), haloperidol, cyproheptadine, atropine and a combination of atropine and yohimbine significantly reversed the activity.

Author(s): 
Junnarkar, A. Y.
Muralidhar, N.
Singh, P. P.
Shrotri, D. S.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: There are conflicting results on the influence of neuromuscular block (NMB) on the bispectral index (BIS). We investigated the influence of two degrees of NMB on BIS, Alaris auditory-evoked potential index (AAI), and the electromyogram (EMG) obtained with needle electrodes from the frontal and temporal muscles, immediately adjacent to the BIS-sensor. METHODS: Twenty patients were anesthetized with sevoflurane, titrated for 30 min to an end-tidal concentration of 1.2% (baseline).

Author(s): 
Ekman, Andreas
Stålberg, Erik
Sundman, Eva
Eriksson, Lars I.
Brudin, Lars
Sandin, Rolf
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford, England)

The British Association for Psychopharmacology (BAP) coordinated a meeting of experts to review the evidence on the drug treatment for dementia. The level of evidence (types) was rated using a standard system: Types 1a and 1b (evidence from meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials or at least one controlled trial respectively); types 2a and 2b (one well-designed study or one other type of quasi experimental study respectively); type 3 (non-experimental descriptive studies); and type 4 (expert opinion).

Author(s): 
Burns, Alistair
O'Brien, John
BAP Dementia Consensus group
Auriacombe, Sophie
Ballard, Clive
Broich, Karl
Bullock, Roger
Feldman, Howard
Ford, Gary
Knapp, Martin
McCaddon, Andrew
Iliffe, Steve
Jacova, Claudia
Jones, Roy
Lennon, Sean
McKeith, Ian
Orgogozo, Jean-Marc
Purandare, Nitin
Richardson, Mervyn
Ritchie, Craig
Thomas, Alan
Warner, James
Wilcock, Gordon
Wilkinson, David
British Association for Psychopharmacology
Publication Title: 
Current Pharmaceutical Design

Extensive research suggests that a number of plant-derived chemicals and traditional Oriental herbal remedies possess cognition-enhancing properties. Widely used current treatments for dementia include extracts of Ginkgo biloba and several alkaloidal, and therefore toxic, plant-derived cholinergic agents. Several non-toxic, European herbal species have pan-cultural traditions as treatments for cognitive deficits, including those associated with ageing. To date they have not received research interest commensurate with their potential utility.

Author(s): 
Kennedy, David O.
Scholey, Andrew B.
Publication Title: 
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) are frequent in people with Alzheimer's disease and cause considerable stress to patients and their carers. Antipsychotics have been widely used as a first-line treatment, resulting in an estimated 1,800 excess strokes and 1,600 excess deaths in the UK alone. Safe and effective alternatives are urgently needed. Based upon preliminary evidence from clinical trials, aromatherapy with melissa oil may be such an alternative, but initial studies have been modest in size, and adequate blinding has been problematic.

Author(s): 
Burns, Alistair
Perry, Elaine
Holmes, Clive
Francis, Paul
Morris, Julie
Howes, Melanie-Jayne R.
Chazot, Paul
Lees, George
Ballard, Clive

Pages

Subscribe to RSS - Cholinesterase Inhibitors