Chondrocytes

Publication Title: 
Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica

In the current era, natural products are gaining prime attention in the fields of cosmeceuticals and pharmaceuticals due to higher safety margins and biological functions, as they have a considerable amount of potential in treating different ailments. Thus, to find effective elastase and hyaluronidase inhibitors from natural resources, fifty Korean plants were screened, and the fruit of Terminalia chebula RETZIUS (Combretaceae) was selected for further structural isolation due to its potent efficacy.

Author(s): 
Kim, Song-Ja
Sancheti, Sandesh A.
Sancheti, Shruti S.
Um, Byung-Hun
Yu, Seon-Mi
Seo, Sung-Yum
Publication Title: 
JAMA facial plastic surgery

BACKGROUND: A grafting technique that uses diced cartilage without fascia, which improves formability while maintaining long-term stability, would be a welcome addition to the rhinoplasty armamentarium. METHODS: A diced cartilage glue graft was recently introduced as the Tasman technique. The technique has been used by one of us (A.-J.T.) in 28 patients who were monitored clinically for 4 to 26 months. Sonographic morphometry of the graft was used in 10 patients with a maximum follow-up of 15 months, and 2 biopsies were obtained for histologic examination.

Author(s): 
Tasman, Abel-Jan
Diener, Pierre-AndrÈ
Litschel, Ralph
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Glucosamine represents one of the most commonly used drugs to treat osteoarthritis. However, mechanisms of its antiarthritic activities are still poorly understood. The present study identifies a novel mechanism of glucosamine-mediated anti-inflammatory activity. It is shown that both glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine inhibit IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-induced NO production in normal human articular chondrocytes.

Author(s): 
Shikhman, A. R.
Kuhn, K.
Alaaeddine, N.
Lotz, M.
Publication Title: 
Chemistry & Biology

BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage from patients with osteoarthritis is characterized by a decreased concentration and reduced size of glycosaminoglycans. Degeneration of the cartilage matrix is a multifactorial process, which is due in part to accelerated glycosaminoglycan catabolism. Recently, we have demonstrated that hexosaminidase represents the dominant glycosaminoglycan-degrading glycosidase released by chondrocytes into the extracellular compartment and is the dominant glycosidase in synovial fluid from patients with osteoarthritis.

Author(s): 
Liu, J.
Shikhman, A. R.
Lotz, M. K.
Wong, C. H.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md.: 1950)

Glucose serves as the major energy substrate and the main precursor for the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans in chondrocytes. Facilitated glucose transport represents the first rate-limiting step in glucose metabolism. This study examines molecular regulation of facilitated glucose transport in normal human articular chondrocytes by proinflammatory cytokines. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, and to a lesser degree IL-6, accelerate facilitated glucose transport as measured by [(3)H]2-deoxyglucose uptake.

Author(s): 
Shikhman, A. R.
Brinson, D. C.
Valbracht, J.
Lotz, M. K.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism

Articular cartilage is an avascular, non-insulin-sensitive tissue that utilizes glucose as the main energy source, a precursor for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, and a regulator of gene expression. Facilitated glucose transport represents the first rate-limiting step in glucose metabolism. Previously, we demonstrated that glucose transport in chondrocytes is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines via upregulation of GLUT mRNA and protein expression.

Author(s): 
Shikhman, Alexander R.
Brinson, Diana C.
Lotz, Martin K.
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms by which chondrocytes convert biomechanical signals into intracellular biochemical events are not well understood. In this study, we sought to determine the intracellular mechanisms of the magnitude-dependent actions of mechanical signals. METHODS: Chondrocytes isolated from rabbit articular cartilage were grown on flexible membranes. Cells were subjected to cyclic tensile strain (CTS) of various magnitudes in the presence or absence of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), which was used as a proinflammatory signal for designated time intervals.

Author(s): 
Agarwal, Sudha
Deschner, James
Long, Ping
Verma, Anupam
Hofman, Cynthia
Evans, Christopher H.
Piesco, Nicholas
Publication Title: 
Gene

The inducible IkappaB kinase (IKKi/IKKepsilon) is a recently described serine-threonine kinase that activates the transcription factors NFkappaB, interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) and CCAAA/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPdelta). Several inflammatory agents have been shown to induce the expression of the IKKi gene in macrophages and other cell types but the mechanism is unknown.

Author(s): 
Wang, Naizhen
Ahmed, Salahuddin
Haqqi, Tariq M.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Nutrition

Interleukin (IL)-1beta induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) implicated in cartilage resorption and joint degradation in osteoarthritis (OA). Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) was recently shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in different disease models. However, no studies have been undertaken to investigate whether PFE constituents protect articular cartilage. In the present studies, OA chondrocytes or cartilage explants were pretreated with PFE and then stimulated with IL-1beta at different time points in vitro.

Author(s): 
Ahmed, Salahuddin
Wang, Naizhen
Hafeez, Bilal Bin
Cheruvu, Vinay K.
Haqqi, Tariq M.
Publication Title: 
Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the molecular basis for the anticatabolic effects of mechanical signals on fibrocartilage cells by studying the expression of a variety of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Furthermore, we examined whether the effects of biomechanical strain on MMP gene expression are sustained. METHODS: Fibrochondrocytes from temporomandibular joint (TMJ) discs were exposed to dynamic tensile strain for various time intervals in the presence of interleukin (IL)-1beta.

Author(s): 
Deschner, J.
Rath-Deschner, B.
Agarwal, S.

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