The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic-analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
We evaluated the ICT Malaria P.f./P.v. immunochromatographic test for the detection of the panmalarial antigen (PMA) using a rodent malaria model. Mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei by mosquito bite, and blood was examined by microscopy and the ICT test. Treatment with artemether was started when the parasite density exceeded 70,000/microL. The ICT PMA band appeared when the parasite density was more than 2,000/microL, but it continued to be positive after the parasitemia became negative in response to the drug treatment.
Diagnostic testing for malaria has for many years been eschewed, lest it be an obstacle to the delivery of rapid, life-saving treatment. The approach of treating malaria without confirmatory testing has been reinforced by the availability of inexpensive treatment with few side effects, by the great difficulty of establishing quality-assured microscopy in rural and resource-poor settings, and by the preeminence of malaria as a cause of important fever in endemic regions. Within the last decade, all three of these factors have changed.
BACKGROUND: Anti-malarial drug resistance threatens to undermine efforts to eliminate this deadly disease. The resulting omnipresent requirement for drugs with novel modes of action prompted a national consortium initiative to discover new anti-plasmodial agents from South African medicinal plants. One of the plants selected for investigation was Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii, based on its ethnomedicinal profile.
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy increases the risk of maternal anemia, abortion and low birth weight. Approximately 85.3 million pregnancies occur annually in areas with Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Pregnancy has been reported to alter the pharmacokinetic properties of many anti-malarial drugs. Reduced drug exposure increases the risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of artemether and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin in pregnant women with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Uganda.
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) is commonly used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat various diseases. The present study examines the anti-tumour effect of the crude extract (CE) of Centella asiatica as well as its partially purified fractions (AF) from chromatographic procedures by both in vitro short and long term chemosensitivity and in vivo tumour model test systems. AF dose dependently inhibited the proliferation of the transformed cell lines significantly more than did the CE and other solvent fractions.
Invertase (beta-fructofuranosidase, EC 220.127.116.11) was purified from the flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa, which is used to prepare certain fermented Ayurvedic drugs. The enzyme was purified to near homogeneity as judged by native PAGE with a yield of 10.7%, using (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, followed by gel filtration through Sepharose 4B and DEAE cellulose chromatography at pH 6.8 and 4.42. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme as determined by elution through Sepharose 4B gel column was found to be approximately 280 kDa.
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. (Family: Solanaceae) is a therapeutically important medicinal plant in traditional and Ayurveda systems of medicine in Sri Lanka. Witheferin A, is a potential anticancer compound found in W. somnifera. In the present study, attempts have been made to compare witheferin A content, in different parts of (root, stem, bark, leaf) two varieties of (LC1 and FR1) W. somnifera grown in same soil and climatic conditions. Ground sample (1g) of leaves, bark, stem and roots of two W. somnifera varieties were extracted with CHCl3 three times.
The natural product engelhardione is an underexplored chemotype for developing novel treatments for bacterial infections; we therefore explored this natural product scaffold for chemical diversification and structure-activity relationship studies. Macrocyclic engelhardione and structural regioisomers were synthesized using a series of aldol condensations and selective hydrogenations to generate the 1,7-diarylheptan-3-one derivatives, followed by microwave-assisted intramolecular Ullmann coupling to afford a series of macrocyclic diaryl ether analogs.