Chromosome Aberrations

Publication Title: 
Oncogene

Cell cycle checkpoints and tumor suppressor gene functions appear to be required for the maintenance of a stable genome in proliferating cells. In this study chromosomal destabilization was monitored in relation to telomere structure, lifespan control and G2 checkpoint function. Replicative senescence was inactivated in secondary cultures of human skin fibroblasts by expressing the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 oncoprotein to inactivate p53. Chromosome aberrations were enumerated during in vitro aging of isogenic control (F5neo) and HPV-16E6-expressing (F5E6) fibroblasts.

Author(s): 
Filatov, L.
Golubovskaya, V.
Hurt, J. C.
Byrd, L. L.
Phillips, J. M.
Kaufmann, W. K.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Biology & Therapy

Studies were conducted to directly test whether the introduction of telomerase protects cancer-prone human mammary epithelial cells from chromosomal instability and spontaneous immortalization. Using a model for Li Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), infection of human telomerase resulted in maintenance of telomere lengths, extension of in vitro lifespan, and prevention of spontaneous immortalization.

Author(s): 
Elmore, Lynne W.
Turner, Kristi C.
Gollahon, Lauren S.
Landon, Melissa R.
Jackson-Cook, Colleen K.
Holt, Shawn E.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Tissue engineering holds the promise of replacing damaged or diseased tissues and organs. The use of autologous donor cells is often not feasible because of the limited replicative lifespan of cells, particularly those derived from elderly patients. Proliferative arrest can be overcome by the ectopic expression of telomerase via human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene transfection. To study the efficacy and safety of this potentially valuable technology, we used differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and vascular tissue engineering as a model system.

Author(s): 
Klinger, Rebecca Y.
Blum, Juliana L.
Hearn, Bevin
Lebow, Benjamin
Niklason, Laura E.
Publication Title: 
Spine

STUDY DESIGN: Nonviral transfection of nucleus pulposus cells with a telomerase expression construct to assess the effects on cellular lifespan, function, karyotypic stability, and transformation properties. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether telomerase gene therapy can extend the cellular lifespan while retaining functionality of nucleus pulposus cells in a safe manner. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Degeneration of the intervertebral disc is an age-related condition in which cells responsible for the maintenance and health of the disc deteriorate with age.

Author(s): 
Chung, Sylvia A.
Wei, Ai Qun
Connor, David E.
Webb, Graham C.
Molloy, Timothy
Pajic, Marina
Diwan, Ashish D.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Caloric restriction (CR), a reduction of food intake while avoiding malnutrition, can delay the onset of cancer and age-related diseases in several species, including mice. In addition, depending of the genetic background, CR can also increase or decrease mouse longevity. This has highlighted the importance of identifying the molecular pathways that interplay with CR in modulating longevity. Significant lifespan extension in mice has been recently achieved through over-expression of the catalytic subunit of mouse telomerase (mTERT) in a cancer protective background.

Author(s): 
Vera, Elsa
Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno
Foronda, Miguel
Flores, Juana M.
Blasco, Maria A.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Caloric restriction (CR), a reduction of food intake while avoiding malnutrition, can delay the onset of cancer and age-related diseases in several species, including mice. In addition, depending of the genetic background, CR can also increase or decrease mouse longevity. This has highlighted the importance of identifying the molecular pathways that interplay with CR in modulating longevity. Significant lifespan extension in mice has been recently achieved through over-expression of the catalytic subunit of mouse telomerase (mTERT) in a cancer protective background.

Author(s): 
Vera, Elsa
Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno
Foronda, Miguel
Flores, Juana M.
Blasco, Maria A.
Publication Title: 
Disease Models & Mechanisms

The study of telomere biology is crucial to the understanding of aging and cancer. In the pursuit of greater knowledge in the field of human telomere biology, the mouse has been used extensively as a model. However, there are fundamental differences between mouse and human cells. Therefore, additional models are required. In light of this, we have characterized telomerase-deficient zebrafish (Danio rerio) as the second vertebrate model for human telomerase-driven diseases.

Author(s): 
Anchelin, Monique
Alcaraz-PÈrez, Francisca
MartÌnez, Carlos M.
BernabÈ-GarcÌa, Manuel
Mulero, Victoriano
Cayuela, MarÌa L.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society

It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the aetiology of age related diseases. Over the last decades, strong efforts have been made to identify antioxidants in human foods and numerous promising compounds have been detected which are used for the production of supplements and functional foods. The present paper describes the advantages and limitations of methods which are currently used for the identification of antioxidants. Numerous in vitro methods are available which are easy to perform and largely used in screening trials.

Author(s): 
Hoelzl, C.
Bichler, J.
Ferk, F.
Simic, T.
Nersesyan, A.
Elbling, L.
Ehrlich, V.
Chakraborty, A.
Knasm¸ller, S.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Caloric restriction (CR), a reduction of food intake while avoiding malnutrition, can delay the onset of cancer and age-related diseases in several species, including mice. In addition, depending of the genetic background, CR can also increase or decrease mouse longevity. This has highlighted the importance of identifying the molecular pathways that interplay with CR in modulating longevity. Significant lifespan extension in mice has been recently achieved through over-expression of the catalytic subunit of mouse telomerase (mTERT) in a cancer protective background.

Author(s): 
Vera, Elsa
Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno
Foronda, Miguel
Flores, Juana M.
Blasco, Maria A.
Publication Title: 
FEBS letters

The molecular features of telomeres and telomerase are conserved among most eukaryotes. How telomerase and telomeres function and how they interact to promote the chromosome-stabilizing properties of telomeres are discussed here.

Author(s): 
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.

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