Chromosomes, Human, Y

Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: A systematic genome survey was initiated to identify loci that affect the likelihood of reaching age 90 with preserved cognition. This communication describes the clinical characterization and comparison of the experimental groups, validation of the experimental method, and results for the Y chromosome. METHODS: The genome survey was conducted at 10 cM resolution for simple sequence tandem repeat polymorphisms (SSTRPs) that identify genes for successful aging by virtue of linkage disequilibrium.

Author(s): 
Zubenko, George S.
Stiffler, J. Scott
Hughes, Hugh B.
Fatigati, Mario J.
Zubenko, Wendy N.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics

Protocadherin X and Protocadherin Y (PCDHX and PCDHY) are cell-surface adhesion molecules expressed predominantly in the brain. The PCDHX/Y gene-pair was generated by an X-Y translocation approximately 3 million years ago (MYA) that gave rise to the Homo sapiens-specific region of Xq21.3 and Yp11.2 homology. Genes within this region are expected to code for sexually dimorphic human characteristics, including, for example, cerebral asymmetry a dimension of variation that has been suggested is relevant to psychosis.

Author(s): 
Giouzeli, Maria
Williams, Nic A.
Lonie, Lorne J.
DeLisi, Lynn E.
Crow, Timothy J.
Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Research

OBJECTIVE: To achieve a unified concept of the aetiology of psychosis. BACKGROUND: The nuclear symptoms of "schizophrenia" occur with approximately the same age- and sex-specific incidence in all human populations. No substantive environmental precipitant has been identified, and yet these "illnesses" are associated with deviations in brain structure that are uniform across populations, are established late in development and relate to the capacity for language. No genes have been identified by linkage or association strategies.

Author(s): 
Crow, Timothy J.
Publication Title: 
Laterality

A theory of the genetic basis of cerebral asymmetry is outlined according to which (1) a single right-shift factor in all human individuals interacts with (2) epigenetic variation that is apparently random, transmissible between parent and child, but with a half-life extending over a small number of generations. The right-shift factor arose late (150 to 200 thousand years ago [KYA]) in hominid evolution as a mutation in the X copy of a gene pair (Protocadherin 11XY) in a region of homology between the X and Y chromosomes created by a duplication 6MYA at the chimpanzee hominid separation.

Author(s): 
Crow, T. J.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics

Sex differences in psychosis and their interaction with laterality (systematic departures from 50:50 left-right symmetry across the antero-posterior neural axis) are reviewed in the context of the X-Y gene hypothesis. Aspects of laterality (handedness/cerebral asymmetry/the torque) predict (1) verbal and non-verbal ability in childhood and across adult life and (2) anatomical, physiological, and linguistic variation relating to psychosis.

Author(s): 
Crow, Timothy J.
Publication Title: 
Asian Journal of Andrology

AIM: To test the hypothesis that levels of sperm disomy fell significantly in six men treated by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). METHODS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was done on the sperm heads of six men before and during treatment by TCM. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in sperm disomy in all six men. This coincided with TCM treatment. CONCLUSION: This is the first study reporting a significant reduction in sperm disomy in men over a given time course.

Author(s): 
Tempest, Helen G.
Homa, Sheryl T.
Zhai, Xiao-Ping
Griffin, Darren K.
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