The focus of this review is on current research involving long-term calorie restriction (CR) and the resulting changes observed in physiological and behavioral outcomes in humans. Special emphasis will be given to the first completed clinical studies which are currently investigating the effects of controlled, high-quality energy-restricted diets on both biomarkers of longevity and on the development of chronic diseases related to age in humans.
The concept of biomarkers of aging and age-related disease dates to the early 1980s as scientists engaged in aging research worked to clearly define aging and separate processes from disease with better prediction of both as an objective. The concept of basic aging processes, separate from disease, was then, and still is, not universally accepted. While the search for biomarkers of aging has a relatively long and difficult history, the search for biomarkers of disease is conceptually more straightforward.
Okinawans, who have a different ethnicity and food cultural history to other Japanese nationals, and an exceptional longevity have been studied at home and as migrant groups in Hawaii and Brazil. Biomarkers for fish and soy intake and intervention studies indicate that these foods, along with seaweed and green vegetables are candidates for chronic non-communicable disease prevention.
BACKGROUND: Prospective data on nongenetic determinants of exceptional longevity are limited, and information on long-lived men and their functional status is particularly sparse. We examined modifiable factors associated with a life span of 90 or more years and late-life function in men. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study of 2357 healthy men (mean age, 72 years) within the Physicians' Health Study (1981-2006), biological and lifestyle factors and comorbid conditions were assessed by self-report with baseline and annual questionnaires.
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
OBJECTIVE: Postsurgical atrioventricular block may complicate surgery for congenital heart defects and is generally considered permanent when persisting longer than 14 days after surgery. In this study, we evaluate the occurrence of spontaneous late recovery of atrioventricular conduction in postsurgical chronic atrioventricular block and discuss its clinical implications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all cardiac surgical procedures on cardiopulmonary bypass between January 1993 and November 2010 in subjects younger than 18 years.
Aging affects all organisms, from unicellular yeasts to multicellular humans. Studies in model organisms demonstrate that the pathways that mediate the two forms of aging, replicative and chronological, are highly conserved. Most studies are focused on the effect of aging on an individual cell rather than a whole population. Complex longevity regulation, however, makes aging a highly adaptive trait that is subject to natural selection.
Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society
Interactions between genetic (genome) and environmental factors (epigenome) operate during a person's entire lifespan. The aging process is associated with several cellular and organic functional alterations that, at the end, cause multi-organic cell failure. Epigenetic mechanisms of aging are modifiable by appropriate preventive actions mediated by sirtuins, caloric input, diet components, adipose tissue-related inflammatory reactions, and physical activity.
During chronic infections and cancer, T cells progressively lose function and become exhausted. However, effective T-cell responses are necessary to ultimately control viral infections and tumors. Hence, strategies that either restore endogenous immune responses or provide functional T cells by adoptive immunotherapy need to be explored. CD8 T cells play a prominent role in viral infections, as well as cancer, but CD4 T cells are necessary to support CD8 T-cell function.
Diet is a component in the etiology of the two major causes of death in the United States, namely, cardiovascular disease and cancer. During the last decade, various organizations have suggested that we alter the "typical" American diet in order to decrease the incidence of these diseases even though both diseases are indisputably of multiple etiology. An implication behind these recommendations is that individuals will increase their longevity by changing their diets.