NaCT (sodium-coupled citrate transporter) is an Na(+)-coupled citrate transporter identified recently in mammals that mediates the cellular uptake of citrate. It is expressed predominantly in the liver. NaCT is structurally and functionally related to the product of the Indy (I'm not dead yet) gene in Drosophila, the dysfunction of which leads to lifespan extension. Here, we show that NaCT mediates the utilization of extracellular citrate for fat synthesis in human liver cells, and that the process is stimulated by lithium.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of widely used nanomaterials in industry and biomedicine. The potential impact of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was evaluated using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a toxicological animal model. SWCNTs are extremely hydrophobic to form large agglomerates in aqueous solutions. Highly soluble amide-modified SWCNTs (a-SWCNTs) were therefore used in the present study so that the exact impact of SWCNTs could be studied. No significant toxicity was observed in C. elegans due to the amide modification.
In this study, 25 men, referred to our clinic for diagnosis and therapy of infertility were included. All had enlarged prostates. They were given 10 sessions of prostatic massage during 3--4 weeks and the fluid expressed was analysed for citric acid. The hypertrophy was seen to recede in almost all cases. Citric acid concentrations fell in only 6/25 cases analysed. In all the others, values did not fall and remained relatively stable. There was no apparent relationship between reduction of prostatic volume and the pattern of citric acid secretion.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Caloric restriction extends life span in a variety of species, highlighting the importance of energy balance in aging. A new longevity gene, Indy (for I'm not dead yet), which doubles the average life span of flies without a loss of fertility or physical activity, was postulated to extend life by affecting intermediary metabolism.
Glycine inhibitory dysfunction provides a useful experimental model for studying the mechanism of dynamic mechanical allodynia, a widespread and intractable symptom of neuropathic pain. In this model, allodynia expression relies on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), and it has been shown that astrocytes can regulate their activation through the release of the NMDAR coagonist d-serine. Recent studies also suggest that astrocytes potentially contribute to neuropathic pain. However, the involvement of astrocytes in dynamic mechanical allodynia remains unknown.