Clonidine

Publication Title: 
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Prazosin is recommended for treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)-associated nightmares. Level A. Image Rehearsal Therapy (IRT) is recommended for treatment of nightmare disorder. Level A. Systematic Desensitization and Progressive Deep Muscle Relaxation training are suggested for treatment of idiopathic nightmares. Level B. Venlafaxine is not suggested for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level B. Clonidine may be considered for treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares. Level C.

Author(s): 
Aurora, R. Nisha
Zak, Rochelle S.
Auerbach, Sanford H.
Casey, Kenneth R.
Chowdhuri, Susmita
Karippot, Anoop
Maganti, Rama K.
Ramar, Kannan
Kristo, David A.
Bista, Sabin R.
Lamm, Carin I.
Morgenthaler, Timothy I.
Standards of Practice Committee
American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Publication Title: 
BMJ clinical evidence

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence estimates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) vary according to the diagnostic criteria used and the population sampled. DSM-IV prevalence estimates among school children in the US are 3% to 5%, but other estimates vary from 1.7% to 16.0%. No objective test exists to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD, which remains a clinical diagnosis. Other conditions frequently co-exist with ADHD.

Author(s): 
Keen, Daphne
Hadijikoumi, Irene
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

Author(s): 
Rada, Gabriel
Capurro, Daniel
Pantoja, Tomas
Corbalán, Javiera
Moreno, Gladys
Letelier, Luz M.
Vera, Claudio
Publication Title: 
BMC medical research methodology

BACKGROUND: Recently developed measures such as I2 and H allow the evaluation of the impact of heterogeneity in conventional meta-analyses. There has been no examination of the development of heterogeneity in the context of a cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: Cumulative meta-analyses of five smoking cessation interventions (clonidine, nicotine replacement therapy using gum and patch, physician advice and acupuncture) were used to calculate I2 and H.

Author(s): 
Villanueva, Elmer V.
Zavarsek, Silva
Publication Title: 
BMC medical research methodology

BACKGROUND: Recently developed measures such as I2 and H allow the evaluation of the impact of heterogeneity in conventional meta-analyses. There has been no examination of the development of heterogeneity in the context of a cumulative meta-analysis. METHODS: Cumulative meta-analyses of five smoking cessation interventions (clonidine, nicotine replacement therapy using gum and patch, physician advice and acupuncture) were used to calculate I2 and H.

Author(s): 
Villanueva, Elmer V.
Zavarsek, Silva
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Hot flushes are common in women with a history of breast cancer. Hormonal therapies are known to reduce these symptoms but are not recommended in women with a history of breast cancer due to their potential adverse effects. The efficacy of non-hormonal therapies is still uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of non-hormonal therapies in reducing hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

Author(s): 
Rada, Gabriel
Capurro, Daniel
Pantoja, Tomas
Corbalán, Javiera
Moreno, Gladys
Letelier, Luz M.
Vera, Claudio
Publication Title: 
Life Sciences

The influence of four centrally-acting alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonists, namely, 2(2-chloro-5-trifluoromethylphenylimino) imidazolidine (St 587), cirazoline, (-) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-methoxy-5-methylthio-2-naphthalenamine ((-)SKF 89748A) and 2-(2-methylindazol-4-imino)imidazolidine (Sgd 101/75) on the pharmacological effects of ethanol was investigated. All four drugs reduced the duration of ethanol-induced hypnosis in C57B1/6 mice, this effect being proportional to their relative potencies to exert central alpha-1 agonism.

Author(s): 
Menon, M. K.
Dinovo, E. C.
Haddox, V. G.
Publication Title: 
Masui. The Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology

The effect of tizanidine given as a premedication on perioperative hemodynamics (mean blood pressure, heart rate), sedation, hypnosis and midazolam requirements for induction were assessed in 68 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia. Patients were assigned to three groups. Group 1 was premedicated 90 min prior to induction with tizanidine 4 mg po (n = 28); group 2 was premedicated with tizanidine 2 mg po (n = 12); group 3 received no premedication (n = 28).

Author(s): 
Takenaka, M.
Iida, H.
Kasamatsu, M.
Katoh, H.
Tashiro, T.
Dohi, S.
Publication Title: 
Anaesthesia

We evaluated the effects of clonidine given orally on sevoflurane requirements for anaesthesia and hypnosis. Patients received either clonidine (5 micrograms.kg-1) by mouth (n = 21) 90 min before surgery or no premedication (n = 21) by random allocation. MAC was calculated using repeated tetanic nerve stimulation with end-tidal sevoflurane concentration increased or decreased by 0.3 vol.% depending on the previous response. MAC awake was calculated according to the response to verbal command.

Author(s): 
Katoh, T.
Ikeda, K.
Publication Title: 
Drugs

Tourette's disorder is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised clinically by motor and vocal tics, which may be associated to conductual disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the neurochemistry of Tourette's disorder is not well known, there are some effective therapies for tics, OCD and ADHD. However, these are not devoid of adverse effects. Tics only require treatment when they interfere with the functioning of the patient.

Author(s): 
Jiménez-Jiménez, F. J.
García-Ruiz, P. J.

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