P. anserina mutants with impairments in complex IV (COX) of the respiratory chain are characterized by an increase in lifespan. Examples are the nuclear grisea mutant with a moderate lifespan extension (60%) and the immortal extranuclear ex1 mutant. Here we report data demonstrating that in mutant ex1 the level of the alternative oxidase (PaAOX) is significantly higher than in mutant grisea. PaAOX levels appear to be reversely dependent on COX activity.
NaCT (sodium-coupled citrate transporter) is an Na(+)-coupled citrate transporter identified recently in mammals that mediates the cellular uptake of citrate. It is expressed predominantly in the liver. NaCT is structurally and functionally related to the product of the Indy (I'm not dead yet) gene in Drosophila, the dysfunction of which leads to lifespan extension. Here, we show that NaCT mediates the utilization of extracellular citrate for fat synthesis in human liver cells, and that the process is stimulated by lithium.
Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites with a life cycle characterized by a period of starvation; many ticks spend more than 95% of their life off the host. Autophagy, which is the process of bulk cytoplasmic degradation in eukaryotic cells, is induced by starvation and is essential for extension of the lifespan. Therefore, we hypothesized that autophagy also occurs in ticks; however, there has been no report on autophagy-related (ATG) genes in ticks.
The human tyrosine hydroxylase (hTH) gene has a 42†bp evolutionarily conserved region designated (CR) II at -7.24†kb, which bears 93% homology to the region we earlier identified as containing the glucocorticoid response element, a 7†bp activator protein-1 (AP-1)-like motif in the rat TH gene. We cloned this hTH-CRII region upstream of minimal basal hTH promoter in luciferase (Luc) reporter vector, and tested glucocorticoid responsiveness in human cell lines.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chromosome ends in the lower eukaryotes terminate in variable numbers of tandem, simple DNA repeats. We tested predictions of a model in which these telomeric repeats provide a substrate for the addition of more repeats by a terminal transferase-like mechanism that, in concert with DNA polymerase and primase, effectively counterbalances the loss of DNA due to degradation or incomplete replication.
Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
PURPOSE: To test ribozymes targeting mouse telomerase RNA (mTER) for suppression of the progression of B16-F10 murine melanoma metastases in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Hammerhead ribozymes were designed to target mTER. The ribozyme sequences were cloned into a plasmid expression vector containing EBV genomic elements that substantially prolong expression of genes delivered in vivo. The activity of various antitelomerase ribozymes or control constructs was examined after i.v. injection of cationic liposome:DNA complexes containing control or ribozyme constructs.
The germ-line micronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila contains approximately 10(2) chromosome-internal blocks of tandemly repeated C4A2 sequences (mic C4A2). This repeated sequence is the telomeric sequence in the somatic macronucleus. Each of six cloned micC4A2 was found to be adjacent to a conserved 30 bp sequence, which we propose is the terminal inverted repeat of a family of DNA elements (the Tel-1 family).
Site-directed mutagenesis of the telomerase RNA from Tetrahymena thermophila was used previously to demonstrate the templating function of a sequence within this RNA; this sequence specifies the sequence of telomeric DNA in vivo. The possible functional importance of a phylogenetically conserved nucleotide outside the telomerase RNA template region was investigated by a similar experimental approach.