This study aimed to determine the effect of cocaine on the development and growth of immature and adult blowflies, in an attempt to better understand the impacts of such effects on postmortem interval (PMI) estimation. Twice the lethal dose of cocaine was injected into rabbits. The control animals were injected only with saline solution. Experimental and control rabbits were autopsied, and portions of their livers were exposed to newly eclosed larvae of Chrysomya putoria and Chrysomya albiceps. Larvae were weighed individually every 6 h, up 54 h of exposure.
Psychoanalytic theorists concerned with substance abuse suggest that the affect tolerance and affect expression of addicts are impaired due to preverbal influences. However, psychoanalytic contributions have largely been limited to clinical speculations and case study reports. The present study investigated the hypotheses that opiate abusers will demonstrate more impaired affect tolerance and affect expression than cocaine abusers, and that both groups would appear more impaired than a sample of normals.
Drug addiction continues to be a serious medical and social problem. Vulnerability to develop an addiction to drugs is dependent on genetic, environmental, social and biological factors. In particular, the interactions of environmental and genetic factors indicate the significance of epigenetic mechanisms, which have been found to occur in response to illicit drug use or as underlying factors in chronic substance abuse and relapse. Epigenetics is defined as the heritable and possibly reversible modifications in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence.
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder has a high co-occurrence with substance use disorders, but the pathophysiological mechanisms have not been adequately explored. AIMS: To review the role of stress in the onset and recurrence of affective episodes and substance misuse. METHOD: We review the mechanisms involved in sensitisation (increased responsivity) to recurrence of stressors, mood episodes and cocaine use.
Addiction is a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder that is thought to occur in vulnerable individuals. Synaptic plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse in the so-called neuronal circuits of reward has been proposed to underlie behavioral adaptations that characterize addiction. By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and activate intracellular events involved in long-term behavioral alterations.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a crucial role in modulating neural and behavioral plasticity to drugs of abuse. We found a persistent downregulation of exon-specific Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in response to chronic opiate exposure, which was mediated by specific epigenetic modifications at the corresponding Bdnf gene promoters.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Epigenetic processes that regulate histone acetylation play an essential role in behavioral and molecular responses to cocaine. To date, however, only a small fraction of the mechanisms involved in the addiction-associated acetylome have been investigated. Members of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of epigenetic "reader" proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT) bind acetylated histones and serve as a scaffold for the recruitment of macromolecular complexes to modify chromatin accessibility and transcriptional activity.
Yakubutsu, Seishin, K?d? = Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology
Pharmacological interactions between morphine (Mor; analgesia), pentobarbital (Pent; hypnosis), ethanol (EtOH; rotarod adaptability), amphetamine (AMP; ambulation), and cocaine (Coca; ambulation) were examined in mice after a single or repeated administrations. Pretreatment with each drug, even a single dose, resulted in a modification of the effect of succeeding drugs. After 6-day daily treatment with drugs, tolerance developed to Mor, Pent, and EtOH, while reverse tolerance was developed to AMP and Coca.
Archives Internationales De Pharmacodynamie Et De Thérapie
This study deals with the interactions of cocaine with barbital, pentobarbital and ethanol in nontolerant and tolerant male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cocaine hydrochloride (50 mg) pellets implanted s.c. in rats prior to the i.p. injections of sodium barbital (150 mg/kg dose once daily for 4 days) potentiated the hypothermic response 2 hr after the barbital injection, when maximum hypothermia occurred. The s.c. implantation of the same type of pellets prior to the i.p.