Cocaine-Related Disorders

Publication Title: 
Revue Medicale Suisse

The news in addiction medicine for 2011 include new knowledges coming from the neurosciences, but also new clinical concepts, as the role of hospital addiction units in an integrated network of care. The issue of cocaine vaccination is discussed from an ethical point of view. Finally, the integration of mindfulness techniques is introduced as a useful approach in the treatment of the addictions.

Author(s): 
Besson, J.
Grivel, J.
Tomei, A.
Falcheri, J.-P.
Waelchli, M.
Simon, O.
Rossier, V.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom has had a significant increase in addiction to and use of cocaine among 16-29-year olds from 6% in 1998 to 10% in 2000. In 2000, the United Kingdom had the highest recorded consumption of "recent use" cocaine in Europe, with 3.3% of young adults. Acupuncture is quick, inexpensive, and relatively safe, and may establish itself as an important addiction service in the future.

Author(s): 
D'Alberto, Attilio
Publication Title: 
Journal of Addictive Diseases

Acupuncture is being used in more than three hundred treatment facilities for treating substance abuse including cocaine addiction. Previous review papers could not evaluate the role of acupuncture for treating cocaine addiction because of lack of clinical trials at the time. Since then, several important studies were conducted in the field. This paper reviews existing clinical trials using acupuncture to treat cocaine addiction. The existing evidence fails to document the benefit of acupuncture in treating cocaine addiction as the sole treatment.

Author(s): 
Kim, Yoon-Hang John
Schiff, Elad
Waalen, Jill
Hovell, Mel
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Auricular acupuncture (insertion of acupuncture into a number, usually five, of specific points in the ear) is a widely-used treatment for cocaine dependence. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether auricular acupuncture is an effective treatment for cocaine dependence, and to investigate whether its effectiveness is influenced by the treatment regimen.

Author(s): 
Gates, S.
Smith, L. A.
Foxcroft, D. R.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: Auricular acupuncture (insertion of acupuncture into a number, usually five, of specific points in the ear) is a widely-used treatment for cocaine dependence. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether auricular acupuncture is an effective treatment for cocaine dependence, and to investigate whether its effectiveness is influenced by the treatment regimen.

Author(s): 
Gates, S.
Smith, L. A.
Foxcroft, D. R.
Publication Title: 
Neurochemical Research

Impairment of oligodendroglia (OL)-dependent myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is a remarkable parallel recently identified in major psychiatric disorders and chronic drug abuse. Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies revealed myelin defects and microarray-profiling analysis demonstrated aberrant expression of myelin-related genes in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and cocaine addiction. However, the etiology underlying myelin impairment in these clinically distinct subjects remains elusive.

Author(s): 
Feng, Yue
Publication Title: 
Current Psychiatry Reports

Recent discoveries about the effects of drugs of abuse on the brain and the mechanisms of their addictions; new chemical compounds, including immunotherapies; and new actions of available medications are offering many opportunities for the discovery and development of novel medications to treat addictive disorders. Furthermore, advancements in the understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of drug addiction and the pharmacogenetics of the safety and/or efficacy of the medications are providing opportunities for more individualized pharmacotherapy approaches.

Author(s): 
Montoya, Iv·n D.
Vocci, Frank
Publication Title: 
Neurotoxicity Research

Along with genetic vulnerability, multiple environmental factors convey liability to illness progression, including: (1) distal and proximal stressors; (2) recurrence of episodes; and (3) comorbid cocaine abuse. Recurrence of each of these can increase responsivity (sensitize) to themselves and cross-sensitize to the two other factors and drive illness progression as seen clinically in increases in cycle acceleration, severity or duration of episodes, treatment refractoriness, disability, cognitive dysfunction, and premature death.

Author(s): 
Post, Robert M.
Publication Title: 
Statistics in Medicine

Epigenetics is the study of changes to the genome that can switch genes on or off and determine which proteins are transcribed without altering the DNA sequence. Recently, epigenetic changes have been linked to the development and progression of disease such as psychiatric disorders. High-throughput epigenetic experiments have enabled researchers to measure genome-wide epigenetic profiles and yield data consisting of intensity ratios of immunoprecipitation versus reference samples.

Author(s): 
Wang, Xinlei
Zang, Miao
Xiao, Guanghua
Publication Title: 
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine

Chronic drug exposure alters gene expression in the brain and produces long-term changes in neural networks that underlie compulsive drug taking and seeking. Exactly how drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and subsequent gene expression are translated into persistent neuroadaptations remains unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that complex drug-induced neuroadaptations in the brain are mediated by highly synchronized and dynamic patterns of gene regulation.

Author(s): 
Schmidt, Heath D.
McGinty, Jacqueline F.
West, Anne E.
Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh

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