Human keratinocytes grown in co-culture with fibroblast feeder cells have an extended in vitro lifespan and delayed accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4a) when compared to the same cells grown on tissue culture plastic alone. Previous studies have indicated that human keratinocytes can be immortalized by telomerase activity alone when grown in co-culture with feeder cells, suggesting that loss of the p16(INK4a)/Rb pathway is not required for immortalization.
With ageing, there is a loss of adult stem cell function. However, there is no direct evidence that this has a causal role in ageing-related decline. We tested this using muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells (MDSPCs) in a murine progeria model. Here we show that MDSPCs from old and progeroid mice are defective in proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Intraperitoneal administration of MDSPCs, isolated from young wild-type mice, to progeroid mice confer significant lifespan and healthspan extension.
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a recessive neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the selective loss of spinal motor neurons. No available therapy exists for SMA, which represents one of the leading genetic causes of death in childhood. SMA is caused by a mutation of the survival-of-motor-neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, leading to a quantitative defect in the survival-motor-neuron (SMN) protein expression. All patients retain one or more copies of the SMN2 gene, which modulates the disease severity by producing a small amount of stable SMN protein.
INTRODUCTION: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received much attention as a promising population of stem cells in regenerative endodontics. Securing a good blood supply during regeneration is a challenging task because of the constricted apical canal opening, which allows only a limited blood supply. The aim of this study was to investigate any potential synergistic effects of dental pulp stem cells and endothelial cells (ECs) on osteo-/odontogenic and angiogenic differentiation in vitro.
Discoveries of immunomodulatory functions in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have suggested that they might have therapeutic utility in treating immune diseases. Recently, a novel MSC population was identified from dental pulp of human supernumerary teeth, and its multipotency characterized. Herein, we first examined the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory functions of human supernumerary tooth-derived stem cells (SNTSCs).
Among several genetic mutations known to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common. In approximately 30% of C9orf72-ALS cases, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels within the C9orf72 promoter are increased, resulting in a modestly attenuated phenotype. The developmental timing of C9orf72 promoter hypermethylation and the reason why it occurs in only a subset of patients remain unknown.
In common with many other cell types, synovial fibroblasts produce exosomes. In this study, we show that the exosomes produced by synovial fibroblasts obtained from individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RASF), but not exosomes produced by synovial fibroblasts obtained from individuals with osteoarthritis, contain a membrane bound form of TNF-alpha as demonstrated by colloidal gold immunostaining of TNF-alpha and confirmed by both Western blot and mass spectrometry.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is commonly used as a dietary supplement and may affect prostate pathophysiology when metabolized to androgens and/or estrogens. Human prostate LAPC-4 cancer cells with a wild type androgen receptor (AR) were treated with DHEA, androgens dihydrotestosterone (DHT), T, or R1881), and E2 and assayed for prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein and gene expression. In LAPC-4 monocultures, DHEA and E2 induced little or no increase in PSA protein or mRNA expression compared to androgen-treated cells.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is used as a dietary supplement and can be metabolized to androgens and/or estrogens in the prostate. We investigated the hypothesis that DHEA metabolism may be increased in a reactive prostate stroma environment in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1), and further, whether red clover extract, which contains a variety of compounds including isoflavones, can reverse this effect.
Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, particularly its UVB (290-320 nm) component, is the primary cause of many adverse biological effects including photoageing and skin cancer. UVB radiation causes DNA damage, protein oxidation and induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Photochemoprevention via the use of botanical antioxidants in affording protection to human skin against UVB damage is receiving increasing attention. Pomegranate, from the tree Punica granatum, contains anthocyanins and hydrolysable tannins and possesses strong antioxidant and anti-tumor-promoting properties.