Codeine

Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
Author(s): 
LeBaron, S.
Zeltzer, L.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

The effects of hypnosis in connection with surgery have been described in many clinical publications, but few controlled studies have been published. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative hypnotic techniques used by patients planned for surgical removal of third mandibular molars. The patients were randomly assigned to an experimental (hypnotic techniques) or a control (no hypnotic techniques) group. During the week before the surgery, the experimental group listened to an audiotape containing a hypnotic relaxation induction.

Author(s): 
Enqvist, B.
Fischer, K.
Publication Title: 
Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals

UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) is involved in the glucuronidation of a wide array of clinically important drugs and endogenous compounds in humans. The aim of this study was to identify an isoform-selective probe substrate that could be used to investigate genetic and environmental influences on glucuronidation mediated by UGT2B7. Three potential probe substrates [3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), morphine, and codeine], were evaluated using recombinant UGTs and human liver microsomes (HLMs; n = 54).

Author(s): 
Court, Michael H.
Krishnaswamy, Soundarajan
Hao, Qin
Duan, Su X.
Patten, Christopher J.
von Moltke, Lisa L.
Greenblatt, David J.
Publication Title: 
Pediatric Emergency Care

BACKGROUND: Pain is the most common reason for seeking health care in the Western world and is a contributing factor in up to 80% of all emergency department (ED) visits. In the pediatric emergency setting, musculoskeletal injuries are one of the most common painful presentations. Inadequate pain management during medical care, especially among very young children, can have numerous detrimental effects. No standard of care exists for the management of acute musculoskeletal injury-related pain in children.

Author(s): 
Ali, Samina
Drendel, Amy L.
Kircher, Janeva
Beno, Suzanne
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

OBJECTIVES: Severe throat pain can result from tonsillectomy and last up to 10 days in children. Codeine elixir has long been used for pain relief, but has recently been banned by the Food and Drug Administration due to a recently recognized risk of death. We explored acupuncture as an alternative means of pain relief for children and adolescents after tonsillectomy. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of children and adolescents who underwent tonsillectomy over a three-month period. No narcotics were prescribed after surgery.

Author(s): 
Ochi, James W.
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