ACAT2, the enzyme responsible for the formation of cholesteryl esters incorporated into apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins by the small intestine and liver, forms predominantly cholesteryl oleate from acyl-CoA and free cholesterol. The accumulation of cholesteryl oleate in plasma lipoproteins has been found to be predictive of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, a method was developed in which fatty acyl-CoA subspecies could be extracted from mouse liver and quantified.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVE: In our previous studies that examined in vivo activities of oncostatin M (OM) in upregulation of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) expression, we observed reductions of LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels in OM-treated hyperlipidemic hamsters. Interestingly, the OM effect of lowering plasma TG was more pronounced than LDL-cholesterol reduction, suggesting additional LDLR-independent actions. Here, we investigated mechanisms underlying the direct TG-lowering effect of OM.
Stearic acid (stearate) is an 18-carbon saturated fatty acid that has been shown to inhibit invasion and proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human cell types. The specificity of stearate-induced apoptosis for cancerous versus noncancerous breast cells has not been examined, and the mechanism underlying stearate-induced apoptosis is unknown. Morphological analysis, cell viability, and caspase-3 activity assays demonstrated that stearate activated apoptosis preferentially in cancerous breast cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) play key roles in fatty acid metabolism in liver and other metabolic tissues in an isozyme-specific manner. In this study, we examined the effects of a fructose-enriched diet on expressions of ACSL isoforms in the liver of hamsters. We showed that the fructose diet markedly reduced the mRNA and protein expressions of ACSL3 in hamster liver without significant effects on other ACSLs.