...A commercial surrogate mother is anyone who is paid money to bear a child for other people and terminate her parental rights, so that the others may raise the child as exclusively their own. The growth of commercial surrogacy has raised with new urgency a class of concerns regarding the proper scope of the market. Some critics have objected to commercial surrogacy on the ground that it improperly treats children and women's reproductive capacities as commodities. The prospect of reducing children to consumer durables and women to baby factories surely inspires revulsion.
This paper examines whether and to what extent parents are morally bound to seek reproductive genetic testing. It is concluded that, with rare exceptions, there is no requirement in parenting to seek or accept reproductive genetic testing if the only actions facilitated by such testing are abortion, selective conception or remaining childless. Commitments to other family members or to oneself can provide other, morally or prudentially compelling reasons to elect genetic testing and selective abortion in these circumstances.
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the long-term consequences of "soft" perpetrator strategies. The purpose of the present study is to assess the consequences of love-bargaining strategies compared to those involving force. METHOD: A representative sample of 980 women, aged 20 to 40 years, in the German-speaking part of Switzerland was asked questions regarding psychosomatic well-being, sexual actions, and perpetrator strategies, as well as motivations for tolerating long periods of abuse. The answers regarding strategies were factor analyzed.
Sexual violence within as well as outside sexual relationships has far-reaching public health and human rights implications and is a continuing focus of popular debate, media coverage, and research in postapartheid South Africa. Partly because it has been shown to affect individual vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, sexual violence has in recent years become framed as a global public health issue.
The number of incarcerated women in the United States is steadily increasing with 9% giving birth while serving time. Mothers and babies are routinely separated immediately and during most of the postpartum period. This qualitative study examines the impact of this policy by exploring the nature and meaning of the mother-infant bonding experience when the mothers know separation is coming. Twelve incarcerated postpartum mothers were interviewed during the early postpartum period about their antepartum and postpartum relationships with their babies.
The last 20 years have seen a proliferation of research, spurred by the imperatives of the HIV epidemic and reportedly high rates of gender-based violence, on heterosexual practices in the South African context. Research has focused on how poverty, age and gender within specific cultural contexts shape sexual agency and provide a context for unequal, coercive and violent practices for young women.
Informal payments are known to be widespread in the post-communist health care systems of Central and Eastern Europe. However, their role and nature remains contentious with the debate characterized by much polemic. This paper aims to make sense of this debate by reviewing and summarizing the main arguments of the theoretical debate in Hungary. The review examines the possible causes of informal payment, the motivation of the actors involved and the impact of informal payment on system performance, focusing on efficiency and equity.
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law: An Official Law Review of the University of Arizona College of Law and the University of Miami School of Law
This study examines whether individuals who experienced involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC) attribute benefit to this intervention. It was found that the majority of experimental subjects who underwent a period of OPC did not personally endorse OPC's benefits at the end of the study, either because they did not think it improved treatment adherence or because they rejected their own need for continued treatment. However, at the end of the study, a positive appraisal of benefit was roughly twice as likely among subjects who actually experienced positive treatment outcomes.
HEC forum: an interdisciplinary journal on hospitals' ethical and legal issues
Given narrow operating margins, health care organizations are increasingly relying on philanthropy to fund operations. Since individuals provide the majority of philanthropic support, many organizations have expanded their "grateful patient fundraising" programs to include current inpatients, both established donors as well as persons of wealth.