Cognition Disorders

Publication Title: 
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

PURPOSE: Cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting a large proportion of patients and having a severe impact on their quality of life. Nevertheless, there exists a large variability in the neuropsychological profiles of MS patients and some of them appear to withstand better than others the MS-related brain pathology before showing cognitive decline.

Author(s): 
Crescentini, Cristiano
Urgesi, Cosimo
Fabbro, Franco
Eleopra, Roberto
Publication Title: 
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

Physical activity (PA) is emerging as a safe and effective tool in the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders. PA subtypes include aerobic, resistance, flexibility, neuromotor (involving balance, agility and co-ordination), mind-body (e.g. tai chi, qi gong and yoga) and mixed type trainings. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that PA subtypes can have positive clinical effects, however the effects on the symptomatology may vary according to the PA subtype.

Author(s): 
Eyre, Harris A.
Baune, Bernhard T.
Publication Title: 
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether aerobic exercise improves cognition in adults diagnosed with neurologic disorders. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro, AMED, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Google Scholar, with the last search performed in December 2010. STUDY SELECTION: We included controlled clinical trials and randomized controlled trials with adults diagnosed with a neurologic disorder.

Author(s): 
McDonnell, Michelle N.
Smith, Ashleigh E.
Mackintosh, Shylie F.
Publication Title: 
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that up to 75% of cancer survivors may experience cognitive impairment as a result of cancer treatment and given the increasing size of the cancer survivor population, the number of affected people is set to rise considerably in coming years. There is a need, therefore, to identify effective, non-pharmacological interventions for maintaining cognitive function or ameliorating cognitive impairment among people with a previous cancer diagnosis.

Author(s): 
Treanor, Charlene J.
McMenamin, Una C.
O'Neill, Roisin F.
Cardwell, Chris R.
Clarke, Mike J.
Cantwell, Marie
Donnelly, Michael
Publication Title: 
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience

PURPOSE: Cognitive impairment is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting a large proportion of patients and having a severe impact on their quality of life. Nevertheless, there exists a large variability in the neuropsychological profiles of MS patients and some of them appear to withstand better than others the MS-related brain pathology before showing cognitive decline.

Author(s): 
Crescentini, Cristiano
Urgesi, Cosimo
Fabbro, Franco
Eleopra, Roberto
Publication Title: 
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law

The cognitive and behavioral changes that can be observed in the neurodegenerative terminal disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), once characterized as purely a motor neuron disease, have become increasingly recognized over the past century. Detecting cognitive deficits earlier and identifying continued changes at regular intervals can lead to improved care, proactive treatments, and earlier discussions about end-of-life wishes.

Author(s): 
Khin Khin, Eindra
Minor, Darlinda
Holloway, Amanda
Pelleg, Ayla
Publication Title: 
Geriatrics & Gerontology International

Medication adherence is a crucial part in the management of chronic diseases. As older adults form a greater proportion of the population with chronic diseases and multiple morbidities, understanding medication adherence in older adults becomes important. In the present article, we aimed to systematically review the literature for the factors associated with medication adherence in the geriatric population. We carried out a literature search using electronic databases and related keywords. 17?391 articles were reviewed in total. 65 articles were found to be relevant to our objective.

Author(s): 
Yap, Angela Frances
Thirumoorthy, Thiru
Kwan, Yu Heng
Publication Title: 
Journal of Affective Disorders

BACKGROUND: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent anxiety disorder, but its neurobiological basis has been poorly studied. A few cognitive models have been proposed for understanding GAD development and maintenance. The aim of this study is to review functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) studies conducted with GAD patients and evaluate if they support and underpin the theoretical cognitive models proposed for this anxiety disorder. METHODS: A literature systematic review was undertaken in PubMed and ISI databases with no time limits.

Author(s): 
Mochcovitch, Marina Dyskant
da Rocha Freire, Rafael Christophe
Garcia, Rafael Ferreira
Nardi, Antonio E.
Publication Title: 
Climacteric: The Journal of the International Menopause Society

A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance.

Author(s): 
Lehert, P.
Villaseca, P.
Hogervorst, E.
Maki, P. M.
Henderson, V. W.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

With a rapidly aging society it becomes increasingly important to counter normal age-related decline in cognitive functioning. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training programs may have the potential to counteract this decline. On the basis of a growing body of research that shows that meditation has positive effects on cognition in younger and middle-aged adults, meditation may be able to offset normal age-related cognitive decline or even enhance cognitive function in older adults.

Author(s): 
Gard, Tim
Hölzel, Britta K.
Lazar, Sara W.

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