BACKGROUND: Scant research has examined the effect of neuropsychological (NP) functioning on treatment outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study sought to address this gap in existing research. METHODS: A total of 63 youths were included in this study and asked to complete the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and specific subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III).
Is it possible to enhance neural and cognitive function with cognitive training techniques? Can we delay age-related decline in cognitive function with interventions and stave off Alzheimer's disease? Does an aged brain really have the capacity to change in response to stimulation? In the present paper, we consider the neuroplasticity of the aging brain, that is, the brain's ability to increase capacity in response to sustained experience.
The Indo-Tibetan tradition claims that proficiency in the suggested longevity practices of meditation, diet, and physical exercise (yoga), will result in profound anti-aging, stress-mediating and health enhancing effects. Western biomedical research has begun to demonstrate that the psychobiological states induced and cultivated by cognitive behavioral practices which are emblematic of those contained within the Indo-Tibetan tradition (hypnosis, meditation, visualization, systematic relaxation), indeed do have a profound impact on the body's protective and regulatory systems.
Obesity is a pandemic with many complications that increase the societal disease burden and cost of health care, and decrease longevity and quality of life. Currently, 1 in 3 adults in the United States is obese. Physicians must therefore regularly confront obesity and its consequent diseases, and develop strategies for effective treatment and management. This article summarizes current lifestyle modifications, pharmacological treatment, and surgical options for the management of obesity and discusses the benefits, limitations, and risks of each.
Some patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) exhibit an unsatisfactory reduction in symptom severity despite being treated with all the available therapeutic alternatives. The clinical variables associated with treatment-refractoriness in OCD are inconsistently described in the literature. METHODS: To investigate factors associated with treatment-refractoriness of patients with OCD, we conducted a case-control study, comparing 23 patients with treatment-refractory OCD to 26 patients with treatment-responding OCD.
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Psychotherapy has traditionally competed with psychopharmacology. As drugs have become the more dominant treatment in psychiatry and primary care, this approach is increasingly criticized as limited in scope, lacking in robust outcomes and too heavily influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. Our objective is to show that recent advances in neurobiology are clarifying that learning and environmental experiences, such as psychotherapy, change brain circuits as do drugs.
Diagnostic systems such as the international classification of diseases (ICD-10) or the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM IV) have frequently been criticized as not adequately reflecting the complexity and heterogeneity of insomnia. Progress was made through the introduction of the international classification of sleep disorders (ICSD-2) and the research diagnostic criteria (RDC). The DSM-5 introduced the new category of insomnia disorder, thus relinquishing the traditional dichotomy of primary versus secondary insomnia.
Anxiety disorders that are the most commonly occurring psychiatric disorders in childhood, are associated with a range of social and educational impairments and often continue into adulthood. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment option for the majority of cases, although up to 35-45% of children do not achieve remission. Recent research suggests that some genetic variants may be associated with a more beneficial response to psychological therapy. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation work at the interface between genetic and environmental influences.
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning has been implicated in the development of stress-related psychiatric diagnoses and response to adverse life experiences. This study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and epigenetics in HPA axis and response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). METHODS: Children with anxiety disorders were recruited into the Genes for Treatment project (GxT, N = 1,152). Polymorphisms of FKBP5 and GR were analyzed for association with response to CBT.
Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
OBJECTIVE: To describe spiritually augmented cognitive behaviour therapy (SACBT) and its applications. METHODS: The background for the need to incorporate spirituality into therapy is considered, and SACBT as a therapy for sustaining mental health and functional recovery is described. Cognitive and behavioural components are considered, including the use of existential techniques in discovering meaning. The use of meditation and the validation and incorporation of the appropriate belief system of patients into their treatment are described.