Breast and prostate cancer share similar intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Based on laboratory, ecologic/international comparison, and case-control studies, the impact of dietary fat or other fat subtypes has been suggested as a potential route to reduce risk. Recent large-scale prospective studies have failed to find an association between fat and breast cancer risk. These studies may provide some insight for researchers examining the relation between fat and prostate cancer.
PURPOSE: To examine prospectively the relationship between vegetable consumption and long-term survival. METHODS: In 1965, a total of 1536 Italian males from two Italian rural cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, aged 45-65 years, were examined. Information on lifestyle and food consumption collected at this visit, and total and cause-specific mortality data collected in 30 years of follow-up were analyzed for the present study.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fruits and vegetables are known for their beneficial effects on chronic diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables on total stroke mortality and its 2 main subtypes in men and women separately. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 40 349 Japanese men and women was initiated in 1980-1981 and followed until 1998. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed at baseline on the basis of the response to a food frequency questionnaire.
European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
While several investigations have focused on the association between individual foods and nutrients upon the development of chronic diseases, few have examined the role that entire dietary patterns may play in health and disease. A dietary pattern generally considered to have beneficial health effects is that of the Mediterranean diet. In this paper, five cohort studies exploring the association of Mediterranean diet with overall mortality and hence longevity are reviewed. A number of conclusions can be drawn.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, is associated with longer life expectancy among elderly Europeans. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nine European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom). PARTICIPANTS: 74,607 men and women, aged 60 or more, without coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer at enrolment and with complete information about dietary intake and potentially confounding variables.
BACKGROUND: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has been reported to increase longevity, but concerns have been expressed that such a diet may promote overweight and obesity. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate whether adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet, as operationalized in a Mediterranean diet score, is associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR).
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of a posteriori dietary patterns with overall survival of older Europeans. DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a multi-centre cohort study. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the association of the prevailing, a posteriori-derived, plant-based dietary pattern with all-cause mortality in a population of subjects who were 60 years or older at recruitment to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort). Analyses controlled for all known potential risk factors.
Optimal nutrition is essential for general well being, maintenance of physical and functional capacities and prevention of chronic disease in the elderly. The 5-year longitudinal study, NuAge, was designed to assess the pivotal role of nutrition on physical and cognitive status, functional autonomy and social functioning. A cohort of 1793 men and women, selected from three age groups (68-72, 73-77, 78-82) at recruitment, has been followed annually since 2003-2004. A plurimethodological approach, including basic, clinical, epidemiologic, and social research has been used.
BACKGROUND: The impact of overall dietary patterns that reflect actual eating behaviors on mortality caused by cardiovascular or other chronic diseases is largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively evaluated the relation between dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality among 72,113 women who were free of myocardial infarction, angina, coronary artery surgery, stroke, diabetes mellitus, or cancer and were followed up from 1984 to 2002.