Colitis

Publication Title: 
PloS One

Numerous studies have shown that resistance to oxidative stress is crucial to stay healthy and to reduce the adverse effects of aging. Accordingly, nutritional interventions using antioxidant food-grade compounds or food products are currently an interesting option to help improve health and quality of life in the elderly. Live lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administered in food, such as probiotics, may be good antioxidant candidates. Nevertheless, information about LAB-induced oxidative stress protection is scarce.

Author(s): 
Grompone, Gianfranco
Martorell, Patricia
Llopis, Silvia
Gonz·lez, N˙ria
GenovÈs, Salvador
Mulet, Ana Paula
Fern·ndez-Calero, Tamara
Tiscornia, InÈs
Bollati-FogolÌn, Mariela
Chambaud, Isabelle
FolignÈ, Benoit
Montserrat, AgustÌn
RamÛn, Daniel
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

Extracts from Boswellia serrata have been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity, primarily via boswellic acid-mediated inhibition of leukotriene synthesis. In three small clinical trials, boswellia was shown to improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and because of its alleged safety, boswellia was considered superior over mesalazine in terms of a benefit-risk evaluation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of boswellia extracts in controlled settings of dextran sulfate- or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice.

Author(s): 
Kiela, Pawel R.
Midura, Anna J.
Kuscuoglu, Nesrin
Jolad, Shivanand D.
Sólyom, Aniko M.
Besselsen, David G.
Timmermann, Barbara N.
Ghishan, Fayez K.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

P-glycoprotein, the product of the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) gene, is a xenobiotic transporter that may contribute to the physiology of the intestinal barrier. Twenty-five percent of mdr1a-deficient (mdr1a(-/-)) mice spontaneously develop colitis at variable ages when maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. We hypothesized that this disease would result from epithelial dysfunction and that conventional housing would increase incidence and severity of the colitis phenotype. Wild-type congenic FVB (+/+) mice were maintained under the same conditions as controls.

Author(s): 
Resta-Lenert, Silvia
Smitham, Jane
Barrett, Kim E.
Publication Title: 
Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine

Oxidant-mediated injury plays an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently, antioxidants were shown to modulate colitis in mice. In this study, the protective effects of L-cysteine and glutathione (GSH) prodrugs are further evaluated against progression of colitis in a murine model. ICR mice were fed compounds incorporated into chow as follows: Group (A) received chow supplemented with vehicle. Group (B) was provided 2-(RS)-n-propylthiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic-acid (PTCA), a cysteine prodrug.

Author(s): 
Oz, Helieh S.
Chen, Theresa S.
Nagasawa, Herbert
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience

The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) is an important nociceptor involved in neurogenic inflammation. We aimed to examine the role of TRPV1 in experimental colitis and in the development of visceral hypersensitivity to mechanical and chemical stimulation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in the distal colon. In the preemptive group, rats received the TRPV1 receptor antagonist JYL1421 (10 mumol/kg, i.v.) or vehicle 15 min prior to TNBS followed by daily doses for 7 days.

Author(s): 
Miranda, A.
Nordstrom, E.
Mannem, A.
Smith, C.
Banerjee, B.
Sengupta, J. N.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease have a high risk of colon cancer. The molecules that initiate and promote colon cancer and the cancer pathways altered remain undefined. Here, using in vitro models and a mouse model of colitis, we show that nitric oxide (NO) species induce retinoblastoma protein (pRb) hyperphosphorylation and inactivation, resulting in increased proliferation through the pRb-E2F1 pathway.

Author(s): 
Ying, Lei
Hofseth, Anne B.
Browning, Darren D.
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Nagarkatti, Prakash S.
Hofseth, Lorne J.
Publication Title: 
Carcinogenesis

Ulcerative colitis is a dynamic, chronic inflammatory condition of the colon associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Ginkgo biloba is a putative antioxidant and has been used for thousands of years to treat a variety of ailments. The aim of this study was to test whether the standardized G.biloba extract, EGb 761, is an antioxidant that can be used to prevent and treat colitis in mice. Here, we show that EGb 761 suppresses the activation of macrophages and can be used to both prevent and treat mouse colitis.

Author(s): 
Kotakadi, Venkata S.
Jin, Yu
Hofseth, Anne B.
Ying, Lei
Cui, Xiangli
Volate, Suresh
Chumanevich, Alexander
Wood, Patricia A.
Price, Robert L.
McNeal, Anna
Singh, Udai P.
Singh, Narendra P.
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Nagarkatti, Prakash S.
Matesic, Lydia E.
Auclair, Karine
Wargovich, Michael J.
Hofseth, Lorne J.
Publication Title: 
Carcinogenesis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a dynamic, idiopathic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. American ginseng has antioxidant properties and targets many of the players in inflammation. The aim of this study was to test whether American ginseng extract prevents and treats colitis. Colitis in mice was induced by the presence of 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water or by 1% oxazolone rectally.

Author(s): 
Jin, Yu
Kotakadi, Venkata S.
Ying, Lei
Hofseth, Anne B.
Cui, Xiangli
Wood, Patricia A.
Windust, Anthony
Matesic, Lydia E.
Pena, Edsel A.
Chiuzan, Codruta
Singh, Narendra P.
Nagarkatti, Mitzi
Nagarkatti, Prakash S.
Wargovich, Michael J.
Hofseth, Lorne J.
Publication Title: 
Digestive Diseases and Sciences

The multifunctional pattern recognition scavenger receptors, SR-A and CD36, are predominantly expressed by lamina propria macrophages and considered important in innate immunity. We examined the role of these receptors in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Colitis was induced in wild type (WT), SRA(-/-), CD36(-/-), and SR-A/CD36 double deficient mice by administering DSS. DSS-induced moderately severe colitis in WT mice was manifested by weight loss, reduced hematocrit, and pathology.

Author(s): 
Oz, Helieh S.
Zhong, Jian
de Villiers, Willem J. S.
Publication Title: 
BMC immunology

BACKGROUND: Consumption of edible mushrooms has been suggested to improve health. A number of isolated mushroom constituents have been shown to modulate immunity. Five commonly consumed edible mushrooms were tested to determine whether whole mushrooms stimulate the immune system in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: The white button (WB) extracts readily stimulated macrophage production of TNF-alpha. The crimini, maitake, oyster and shiitake extracts also stimulated TNF-alpha production in macrophage but the levels were lower than from WB stimulation.

Author(s): 
Yu, Sanhong
Weaver, Veronika
Martin, Keith
Cantorna, Margherita T.

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