Gastrointestinal dysmotility in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is prevalent in 90% of patients, increasing morbidity and in some cases mortality. The resultant gastrointestinal complications are usually extensive, involving many regions of the gut from the oesophagus to the anus. Collagen replacement of vascular and enteric smooth muscle results in hypomotility, lumen dilatation, tensile rigidity and eventual loss of organ functions. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of systemic sclerosis-related gastrointestinal dysmotility and available/potential therapeutic options.
Baicalein is a major compound of extracts derived from Scutellaria baicalensis Lamiaceae, which are used as food supplements. Baicalein possesses a high radical scavenging activity and decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species in Hct116 human colon carcinoma cells and in Caenorhabditis elegans . It activates Nrf2, a key transcription factor that binds to the antioxidant responsive element (ARE): Baicalein causes a nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, increases ARE-dependent luciferase activity, and enhances the expression of heme oxygenase-1 in Hct116 cells.
There are a multitude of antioxidants in foods, especially in foods of plant origin. Higher intake of antioxidant-rich foods is clearly associated with better health and functional longevity. The specific agents and mechanisms responsible are not yet clear, but there is convincing evidence that including more plant-based, antioxidant-rich foods, herbs, and beverages in the diet is effective in promoting health and lowering risk of various age-related diseases.
South African Medical Journal = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Etomidate (Hypnomidate; Janssen) 1,25% in sterile water was given rectally on 100 occasions to 50 male Long-Evans rats in doses ranging from 4 mg/kg to 12 mg/kg. The onset and duration of ataxia and hypnosis (i.e. loss of righting ability) were recorded. Ataxia was observed in all rats, even at the lowest dose levels. The lowest hypnotic dose was 6 mg/kg, when 2 out of 5 rats lost their righting ability. In all 50 rats given 8 mg/kg or more hypnosis occurred within 4 minutes (range 2-4 minutes, average 3,3 minutes), from which they recovered within an average of 10,4 minutes.
OBJECTIVE: Postprandial symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome are common and relate to an exaggerated motor and sensory component of the gastrocolonic response. We investigated whether this response can be affected by hypnotherapy. METHODS: We included 28 patients with irritable bowel syndrome refractory to other treatments. They were randomized to receive gut-directed hypnotherapy 1 hour per week for 12 weeks (N = 14) or were provided with supportive therapy (control group; N = 14).
There is now good evidence that hypnotherapy benefits a substantial proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and that improvement is maintained for many years. Most patients seen in secondary care with this condition also suffer from a wide range of noncolonic symptoms such as backache and lethargy, as well as a number of musculoskeletal, urological, and gynaecological problems. These features do not typically respond well to conventional medical treatment approaches, but fortunately, their intensity is often reduced by hypnosis.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Acupuncture is useful for functional bowel diseases, such as constipation and diarrhea. However, the mechanisms of beneficial effects of acupuncture on colonic function have scarcely ever been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) at ST-36 stimulates colonic motility and transit via a parasympathetic pathway in conscious rats. Hook-shaped needles were inserted at bilateral ST-36 (lower limb) or BL-21 (back) and electrically stimulated at 10 Hz for 20 min. We also studied c-Fos expression in response to EA at ST-36 in Barrington's nucleus of the pons.
Dietary flavonoids are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Colonic bacteria convert flavonoids into smaller phenolic acids (PA), which can be absorbed into the circulation and may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of the parent compounds. The purpose of our study was to determine whether flavonoids from green and black tea (GT, BT), citrus fruit with rutin (CF+R) and soy (S) supplements exposed to the same conditions in a dynamic in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2) will form the same phenolic acid products of microbial metabolism.
Translational Research: The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Oxidant-mediated injury plays an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recently, antioxidants were shown to modulate colitis in mice. In this study, the protective effects of L-cysteine and glutathione (GSH) prodrugs are further evaluated against progression of colitis in a murine model. ICR mice were fed compounds incorporated into chow as follows: Group (A) received chow supplemented with vehicle. Group (B) was provided 2-(RS)-n-propylthiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic-acid (PTCA), a cysteine prodrug.