Combat Disorders

Publication Title: 
Annales Médico-Psychologiques

Milton H. Erickson (1901-1980) renovated the study and practice of therapeutic hypnosis. The author first presents a synthetic overview of Erickson's original work and its spread. He then illustrates this with excerpts from observations of six of his own patients which correspond to the progressive integration of an ericksonian approach into a classical psychiatric practice in a general hospital setting.

Author(s): 
Meggle, D.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatric Medicine

This chapter will describe the use of clinical hypnosis in the military. As a result of the studies that were done during the Vietnam conflict, the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and hypnotize ability was made. The author concludes that combat traumas enhance hypnotic potential in some veterans, and that veterans with excellent hypnotic potential begin to problem solve better preparing for a healthier post-war transition.

Author(s): 
Colosimo, C. P.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

Little attention has been paid to repetitive nightmares and their direct treatment. Hypnosis appears to be a treatment of choice for these nightmares, and techniques for hypnotic treatment may be based upon whether the nightmare mirrors an actual experience of the patient. A new technique that reframes the waking point as the interrupted middle rather than the end of the dream, which then allows a benign completion, is presented, with case histories.

Author(s): 
Kingsbury, S. J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Traumatic Stress

PTSD is often treated with anxiety management techniques, including relaxation training. A case report is presented which describes a PTSD combat veteran who experienced dissociative states induced by relaxation training. Hypnotherapy subsequently identified traumatic memories which were recalled during relaxation training but triggering mechanisms for the recall of these traumatic memories were not identified.

Author(s): 
Fitzgerald, S. G.
Gonzalez, E.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

In a large Army hospital during World War II, a full-time program in hypnotherapy for battle trauma cases was developed. Symptoms included severe anxiety, phobias, conversions, hysterias, and dissociations. Many hypnoanalytic techniques were used, especially including abreactions. Good therapeutic results were frequent, as demonstrated by typical cases. There was no evidence that the abreactive procedure tended to retraumatize patients or initiate psychotic reactions.

Author(s): 
Watkins, J. G.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Reports

Some induction procedures result in trance logic as an essential feature of hypnosis. Trance logic is a voluntary state of acceptance of suggestions without the critical evaluation that would destroy the validity of the meaningfulness of the suggestion. Induction procedures in real and simulated conditions induce a conflict between two contradictory messages in experimental hypnosis. In military induction the conflict is much more subtle involving society's need for security and its need for ethics. Such conflicts are often construed by the subject as trance logic.

Author(s): 
Beshai, J. A.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

This study evaluated the benefits of add-on hypnotherapy in patients with chronic PTSD. Thirty-two PTSD patients treated by SSRI antidepressants and supportive psychotherapy were randomized to 2 groups: 15 patients in the first group received Zolpidem 10 mg nightly for 14 nights, and 17 patients in the hypnotherapy group were treated by symptom-oriented hypnotherapy, twice-a-week 1.5-hour sessions for 2 weeks.

Author(s): 
Abramowitz, Eitan G.
Barak, Yoram
Ben-Avi, Irit
Knobler, Haim Y.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis

Significant data to suggest the need for more appropriate precautions for volunteers participating in stage hypnosis is presented. This paper is a case report of a soldier previously injured in battle who, due to participating in stage hypnosis one year after his injury, experienced a dissociative episode wherein post-traumatic stress symptoms were prominent.

Author(s): 
Wain, Harold J.
Dailey, Jason
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Many combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have an olfactory component to their traumatic memories that might be utilized by a technique called hypnotherapeutic olfactory conditioning (HOC). Thirty-six outpatients with chronic PTSD, featuring resistant olfactory-induced flashbacks, were treated with six 1.5-hour sessions using hypnosis. The authors used the revised Impact of Events Scale (IES-R), Beck Depression Inventory, and Dissociative Experiences Scale as outcome measures.

Author(s): 
Abramowitz, Eitan G.
Lichtenberg, Pesach
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Ego state therapy (EST) evolved from a psychodynamic understanding of personality as a product of an individual's ego states to a conceptualization of how ego-energized and object-energized elements are bound together to cope with a traumatic event. Neurobiological studies now substantiate Watkins's war neuroses conceptualizations. Because of their severity, trauma memories are encoded in the subcortical-subconscious brain regions that are accessed by the single-session manualized EST procedure but not by the popular cognitive-behavioral management therapies.

Author(s): 
Barabasz, Arreed F.
Barabasz, Marianne
Watkins, John G.

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