Comet Assay

Publication Title: 
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology: Official Organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer

We report the results of our genotoxic evaluation of extracts from three medicinal plants Acacia nilotica, Juglans regia, and Terminalia chebula and the herbal drug Triphala employing the VITOTOX and comet tests.These tests detect DNA damage in prokaryotic and eukaryotic test systems, respectively. In the VITOTOX test, none of the extracts were identified as genotoxic.

Author(s): 
Arora, Saroj
Brits, Ethel
Kaur, Swayamjot
Kaur, Kamaljeet
Sohi, Rajbir S.
Kumar, Subodh
Verschaeve, Luc
Publication Title: 
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society

It is well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the aetiology of age related diseases. Over the last decades, strong efforts have been made to identify antioxidants in human foods and numerous promising compounds have been detected which are used for the production of supplements and functional foods. The present paper describes the advantages and limitations of methods which are currently used for the identification of antioxidants. Numerous in vitro methods are available which are easy to perform and largely used in screening trials.

Author(s): 
Hoelzl, C.
Bichler, J.
Ferk, F.
Simic, T.
Nersesyan, A.
Elbling, L.
Ehrlich, V.
Chakraborty, A.
Knasm¸ller, S.
Publication Title: 
Cancer Research

Artesunate is a semisynthetic derivative from artemisinin, a natural product from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. It exerts antimalarial activity, and, additionally, artemisinin and its derivatives are active against cancer cells. The active moiety is an endoperoxide bridge. Its cleavage leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species and carbon-centered radicals. These highly reactive molecules target several proteins in Plasmodia, which is thought to result in killing of the microorganism. DNA damage induced by artemisinins has not yet been described.

Author(s): 
Li, Paul C. H.
Lam, Elena
Roos, Wynand P.
Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z.
Kaina, Bernd
Efferth, Thomas
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Artesunate is a derivate of artemisinin that is both an antimalarial agent and acts cytotoxically on tumor cells. Despite its therapeutic use, its in vivo genotoxic potential has still not been evaluated. This study, therefore, was an investigation into the effects of a single oral administration of artesunate with an in vivo comet assay that analyzed leukocytes from peripheral blood and liver cells, and a micronucleus (MN) assay of bone marrow cells from male Swiss mice. The artesunate was administered by oral gavage at doses of 5, 50 and 100 mg/kg.

Author(s): 
Aquino, Ivani
Perazzo, Fábio Ferreira
Maistro, Edson Luis
Publication Title: 
Life Sciences

There is growing evidence that high concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), generated by activated astrocytes, might be involved in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, ischemia and epilepsy. It has recently been suggested that glial cells may produce NO under superoxide radical stimulation by enzyme-independent mechanism. This suggests that also natural antioxidants may have therapeutical relevance in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies of Bhattacharya et al.

Author(s): 
Russo, Alessandra
Borrelli, Francesca
Campisi, Agata
Acquaviva, Rosaria
Raciti, Giuseppina
Vanella, Angelo
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

Bacopa monniera L. (family Scrophulariaceae) (BM) is an Ayurvedic medicine, clinically used for memory enhancing, epilepsy, insomnia and as a mild sedative. In this work, the free radical scavenging capacity of a methanol extract of BM and the effect on DNA cleavage induced by H2O2 UV-photolysis was investigated. In addition, we examined whether this plant extract is capable of reducing the hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human non-immortalized fibroblasts. It showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging capacity and a protective effect on DNA cleavage.

Author(s): 
Russo, Alessandra
Izzo, Angelo A.
Borrelli, Francesca
Renis, Marcella
Vanella, Angelo
Publication Title: 
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology: Official Organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer

Compounds possessing antimutagenic properties (polyphenols, tannins, vitamins, etc.) have been identified in fruits, vegetables, spices, and medicinal plants. Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae), a tropical woody tree occurring throughout India and known locally as Kumbuk, is a medicinal plant rich in tannins and triterpenes that is used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine as a cardiac tonic. The aim of the present collaborative work was to test six solvent extracts from the bark of Terminalia arjuna for antigenotoxic activity using in vitro short-term tests.

Author(s): 
Scassellati-Sforzolini, G.
Villarini, L. M.
Moretti, L. M.
Marcarelli, L. M.
Pasquini, R.
Fatigoni, C.
Kaur, L. S.
Kumar, S.
Grover, I. S.
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

We have undertaken the studies to investigate the presence of various activities of the leaf extract of Ashwagandha (Lash), a commonly used shrub in Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda. In the present study, we studied the effect of Lash against MNNG-induced genotoxicity in onion root tip cells. We report that Lash offered substantial protection against the mutagenic effects of MNNG.

Author(s): 
Rani, G.
Kaur, K.
Wadhwa, R.
Kaul, S. C.
Nagpal, A.
Publication Title: 
Mutation Research

Protection against whole body gamma-irradiation (WBI) of Swiss mice orally fed with Triphala (TPL), an Ayurvedic formulation, in terms of mortality of irradiated animals as well as DNA damage at cellular level has been investigated. It was found that radiation induced mortality was reduced by 60% in mice fed with TPL (1g/kg body weight/day) orally for 7 days prior to WBI at 7.5 Gy followed by post-irradiation feeding for 7 days.

Author(s): 
Sandhya, T.
Lathika, K. M.
Pandey, B. N.
Bhilwade, H. N.
Chaubey, R. C.
Priyadarsini, K. I.
Mishra, K. P.
Publication Title: 
Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Rubia cordifolia L. (Rubiaceae) is an important medicinal plant used in the Ayurvedic medicinal system. Its use as a traditional therapeutic has been related to the treatment of skin disorders and cancer. Besides its medicinal value, anthraquinones from this plant are used as natural food colourants and as natural hair dyes. Dyes derived from natural sources have emerged as important alternatives to synthetic dyes. Alizarin (1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone) was isolated and characterized from R. cordifolia L. and evaluated for its antigenotoxic potential against a battery of mutagens viz.

Author(s): 
Kaur, Prabhjit
Chandel, Madhu
Kumar, Subodh
Kumar, Neeraj
Singh, Bikram
Kaur, Satwinderjeet

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