Competitive Behavior

Publication Title: 
Journal of Homosexuality

Based on a design used in previous research with heterosexuals, this study assessed the permanent partner priorities of gay and straight men and women, as well as the perception of those priorities by each gender and sexual orientation. Heterosexuals and homosexuals did not differ in their rank-ordered priorities, but tended to misperceive the priorities of their own and the other groups studied. Differentials of misperception were explained by varying societal pressures experienced by homo- and heterosexual men and women.

Author(s): 
Laner, M. R.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychosomatic Research

Cynical Mistrust was examined among 64 medical and surgical patients, 23 of whom were selected for a history of CHD and 41 for an absence of such a history. Cynical Mistrust was found to differentiate subjects with a positive history from those without such a history. As hypothesized, persons scoring high in Cynical Mistrust also scored high in Self-Worth by Social Comparison, Playing Hardball with Others and Self-Criticism.

Author(s): 
Fontana, A. F.
Kerns, R. D.
Blatt, S. J.
Rosenberg, R. L.
Burg, M. M.
Colonese, K. L.
Publication Title: 
Nursing Forum

The purpose of this paper is to elucidate contributing factors to the disunity in nursing, and argue that if united nursing would be able to achieve harmony, respect, and, above all, recognition. Social and historical identities imperil nurses, make them defenseless, and cause disunity. The relation between nursing and effects of gender discourses in power struggles is also accentuated.

Author(s): 
Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria
Dithole, Kefalotse
Publication Title: 
Adolescence

This study uses a vignette-based survey design to examine the relationship between both respondent-level and case-level characteristics and the acceptability of violence in dating relationships. Measures of sports participation, competitiveness, and the need to win (respondent characteristics) were administered to 661 male and female late adolescents. Participants also rated the acceptability of violence portrayed in a series of couple interaction vignettes varying along three dimensions: initiator act, recipient reaction, and initator-recipient gender combinations (case characteristics).

Author(s): 
Merten, Michael J.
Publication Title: 
Hormones and Behavior

The author reviews evidence that hypothalamic release (or infusion) of the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates the regulation of cooperation and conflict among humans because of three reasons. First, oxytocin enables social categorization of others into in-group versus out-group. Second, oxytocin dampens amygdala activity and enables the development of trust. Third, and finally, oxytocin up-regulates neural circuitries (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus) involved in empathy and other-concern.

Author(s): 
De Dreu, Carsten K. W.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Youth and Adolescence

The sibling relationship has been deemed the quintessential "love-hate relationship." Sibling relationships have also been found to have both positive and negative impacts on the adjustment of youth. Unlike previous research, however, the present study examined the associations between siblings' positive and negative body-related disclosures with relationship quality and body-esteem. Additionally, ordinal position, individual sex, and sibling sex composition were tested as moderators.

Author(s): 
Greer, Kelly Bassett
Campione-Barr, Nicole
Lindell, Anna K.
Publication Title: 
Proceedings. Biological Sciences

Reciprocal altruism has been the backbone of research on the evolution of altruistic behaviour towards non-kin, but recent research has begun to apply costly signalling theory to this problem. In addition to signalling resources or abilities, public generosity could function as a costly signal of cooperative intent, benefiting altruists in terms of (i) better access to cooperative relationships and (ii) greater cooperation within those relationships. When future interaction partners can choose with whom they wish to interact, this could lead to competition to be more generous than others.

Author(s): 
Barclay, Pat
Willer, Robb
Publication Title: 
Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior

Altruistic behavior is known to be conditional on the level of altruism of others. However, people often have no information, or incomplete information, about the altruistic reputation of others, for example when the reputation was obtained in a different social or economic context. As a consequence, they have to estimate the other's altruistic intentions. Using an economic game, we showed that without reputational information people have intrinsic expectations about the altruistic behavior of others, which largely explained their own altruistic behavior.

Author(s): 
Ellers, Jacintha
Pool, Nadia C. E. van der
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives.

Author(s): 
Pan, Xiaofei Sophia
Houser, Daniel
Publication Title: 
Current biology: CB

Unconditional generosity in humans is a puzzle. One possibility is that individuals benefit from being seen as generous if there is competition for access to partners and if generosity is a costly-and therefore reliable-signal of partner quality [1-3]. The "competitive helping" hypothesis predicts that people will compete to be the most generous, particularly in the presence of attractive potential partners [1]. However, this key prediction has not been directly tested. Using data from online fundraising pages, we demonstrate competitive helping in the real world.

Author(s): 
Raihani, Nichola J.
Smith, Sarah

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