Comprehension

Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly recognized as both a disorder of enormous mental health and societal burden, but also as an anxiety disorder that may be particularly understandable from a scientific perspective. Specifically, PTSD can be conceptualized as a disorder of fear and stress dysregulation, and the neural circuitry underlying these pathways in both animals and humans are becoming increasingly well understood. Furthermore, PTSD is the only disorder in psychiatry in which the initiating factor, the trauma exposure, can be identified.

Author(s): 
Almli, Lynn M.
Fani, Negar
Smith, Alicia K.
Ressler, Kerry J.
Publication Title: 
Cancer

BACKGROUND: Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism.

Author(s): 
Jansen, Lynn A.
Mahadevan, Daruka
Appelbaum, Paul S.
Klein, William M. P.
Weinstein, Neil D.
Mori, Motomi
DaffÈ, Racky
Sulmasy, Daniel P.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Mental Health Nursing

Using Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology informed by van Manen's and Benner's work, this research is an exploration and interpretation of the lived experiences of family members since they lost a close family member to suicidal death. Data from in-depth interviews with six participants, the researcher's journal entries and published literature were analysed. Findings gave rise to a grief model where suicide survivors moved through four modes of being-in-the-world characterized by 13 lifeworlds or themes.

Author(s): 
Fielden, Jann M.
Publication Title: 
Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

Understanding is at the heart of intimate relationships. It is unclear, however, whether understanding-partners' subjective feeling that they understand each other-or knowledge-partners' accurate knowledge of each other-is more important for relationship well-being. The present article pits these two types of understanding against each other and investigates their effects on relationship well-being. In a prospective study among 199 newlywed couples, partners' self-reported and perceived understanding and their knowledge in different domains were assessed.

Author(s): 
Pollmann, Monique M. H.
Finkenauer, Catrin
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Psychology

A primed lexical decision task (LDT) was used to determine whether emotion (e.g., love, fear) and emotion-laden (e.g., puppy, hospital) word processing differs, both explicitly and implicitly. Previous experiments have investigated how emotion word processing differs from both abstract and concrete word processing (Altarriba & Bauer, 2004; Altarriba, Bauer, & Benvenuto, 1999).

Author(s): 
Kazanas, Stephanie A.
Altarriba, Jeanette
Publication Title: 
The Journal of medical practice management: MPM

Tact is the ability to speak to others in a manner that is not offensive or hurtful of others' feelings. Practices should coach staff on verbiage and body language that encourage respect, kindness, and understanding. Being sensitive to the feelings of others is a skill that everyone should develop.

Author(s): 
Weinstock, Donna
Publication Title: 
Medical care research and review: MCRR

Using the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the authors investigate differences between households with two earners and those with a single earner in households' access to employer-based health insurance and the generosity of insurance options. They examine whether a household has an offer of coverage, whether a household holds coverage, and whether all household members are covered. They also explore whether two-earner households have more generous options as measured by the number and types of plans available, as well as contribution requirements.

Author(s): 
Abraham, Jean M.
Royalty, Anne Beeson
Publication Title: 
Archives of Internal Medicine

The principal motive for organ donation in the United States remains altruism. Surveys suggest that if the life-threatening and critical shortage of cadaveric donor organs were appropriately understood by the public, an altruistic response would lead to increased donation. However, despite intense educational efforts appealing to altruism, cadaveric organ donation has not increased substantially while the number of patients in need of a life-saving organ has grown markedly.

Author(s): 
Peters, T. G.
Kittur, D. S.
McGaw, L. J.
Roy MR 1st, null
Nelson, E. W.
Publication Title: 
Bioethics

We describe the informed consent procedures in a research clinic in Santiago, Chile, and a qualitative study that evaluated these procedures. The recruitment process involves information, counseling and screening of volunteers, and three or four visits to the clinic. The study explored the decision-making process of women participating in contraceptive trials through 36 interviews. Women understood the research as experimentation or progress.

Author(s): 
Sanchez, S.
Salazar, G.
Tijero, M.
Diaz, S.
Publication Title: 
Arthritis and Rheumatism

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the informed consent process for a clinical trial of intravenous doxycycline for rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire about the consent process at baseline and 16 weeks following enrollment in a clinical trial. RESULTS: Respondents (n = 30) affirmed voluntary participation in the parent trial. Participants acknowledged hope and altruism as reasons for entering the trial more than expectation of personal benefit or outside influences.

Author(s): 
Criscione, Lisa G.
Sugarman, Jeremy
Sanders, Linda
Pisetsky, David S.
St Clair, E. William

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