Concept Formation

Publication Title: 
Journal of Bioethical Inquiry

The term "scientism" is used in a variety of ways with both negative and positive connotations. I suggest that some of these uses are inappropriate, as they aim simply at dismissing without argument an approach that a particular author does not like. However, there are legitimate negative uses of the term, which I explore by way of an analogy with the term "pseudoscience." I discuss these issues by way of a recent specific example provided by a controversy in the field of bioethics concerning the value, or lack thereof, of homeopathy.

Author(s): 
Pigliucci, Massimo
Publication Title: 
Child Development

Six match-to-sample picture/object selection experiments were designed to explore children's knowledge about superordinate words (e.g., "food") and how they acquire this knowledge. Three factors were found to influence the learning and extension of superordinate words in 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 230): The number of standards (one versus two), the type of standards presented (from different basic-level categories versus from the same basic-level category), and the nature of the object representations used (pictures versus objects).

Author(s): 
Liu, J.
Golinkoff, R. M.
Sak, K.
Publication Title: 
Tumori

AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Research on the topic of hope began a long time ago but, more recently, interest in this construct has focused mainly on the development of psychometric tools for its assessment. The 2 steps of the present article are defining the construct of hope by completing a preliminary review of the literature and analyzing the tools used to assess hope in the setting of oncologic medicine, conducting a systematic review of the existing scientific literature. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Our study was conducted in 2 stages.

Author(s): 
Piccinelli, Claudia
Clerici, Carlo Alfredo
Veneroni, Laura
Ferrari, Andrea
Proserpio, Tullio
Publication Title: 
The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child

That psychological growth and maturation throughout the lifespan involve progressive linear processes is an implicit assumption of all models of development. Within psychoanalysis, a particular focus has been those processes that hinder forward development and manifest themselves as regressions or fixations or in character structure. However, the implicit assumption of progressive, linear development leaves unexplored the central question of what are the processes that govern developmental progressions.

Author(s): 
Mayes, L. C.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Aging & Human Development

The study was aimed at characterizing the exact algebraic structure of the love schema in order to trace possible changes in the conceptualization of love throughout the adult life cycle, notably as regards the weight attributed to the three components of love: passion, intimacy, and commitment. The methodological framework was the Functional Theory of Cognition. Irrespective of the gender and age of the participants (from 18 to 93), the structure of the love schema was shown to obey an equal-weight-averaging rule; the love schema was conceived as a strictly compensatory schema.

Author(s): 
Falconi, Anne
Mullet, Etienne
Publication Title: 
Nursing Science Quarterly

This column seeks to contribute to the understanding of the concept of sacrifice and its significance to nursing through an extensive account of relevant literature from the disciplines of theology, sociology, anthropology, and psychology. The review uncovered that in sacrificing something of value, individuals anticipate connecting with families, groups, society, and deities.

Author(s): 
Florczak, Kristine L.
Publication Title: 
European Journal of Oncology Nursing: The Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the previous proposed Preliminary Live with Love Conceptual Framework (P-LLCF) that focuses on spousal caregiver-patient couples in their journey of coping with cancer as dyads. METHODS: A mixed-methods study that included qualitative and quantitative approaches was conducted. Methods of concept and theory analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied in testing the P-LLCF.

Author(s): 
Li, Qiuping
Xu, Yinghua
Zhou, Huiya
Loke, Alice Yuen
Publication Title: 
Bioethics

Sridhar Venkatapuram's Health Justice argues that health is a 'metacapability' - specifically, as the metacapability of having the ten 'central human capabilities' described by Martha Nussbaum. This cannot be right, as it provides no basis for distinguishing health from education, riches, or love. An amendment correcting this problem is suggested, namely that health is the involuntary, bodily aspect of the metacapability for the central capabilities.

Author(s): 
Richardson, Henry S.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Moral competence refers to the orientation to perform altruistic behavior and the ability to judge moral issues logically, consistently and at an advanced level of development. A brief review of the concepts of altruism and justice is presented. The gender and cultural issues are also discussed. The contents of moral competence program units include four major topics: (1) Fairness, (2) Proper conduct (mainly altruistic and prosocial orientation), (3) Responsibility and altruistic orientation, and (4) Integrity and fairness.

Author(s): 
Ma, Hing Keung
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

Prosocial norms are clear, healthy, ethical standards, beliefs, and behavior guidelines that promote prosocial behavior and minimize health risks. The promotion of prosocial norms like altruism, solidarity, and volunteerism is an important aspect of positive youth development programs. From the literature, it is evident that a prosocial orientation is encouraged in traditional Chinese philosophy.

Author(s): 
Siu, Andrew M. H.
Cheng, Howard C. H.
Leung, Mana C. M.

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